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Appendix B Scientists, Engineers, and Health Professionals Detained Without Charge or Trial or Imprisoned This appendix lists detained or imprisoned colleagues in Syria with confirmed information on their cases and the sources of that information. We believe, but have not always been able to verify, that all the individuals on this list are prisoners of conscience. Some of these people are also listed in Appendix D. The abbreviations used for sources follow: AAAS, American Associa- tion for the Advancement of Science; AI, Amnesty International; AIUA, Amnesty International Urgent Action; AIUSA, Amnesty International USA; CDF, the Committees for the Defense of Democratic Freedoms and Human Rights in Syria; MESA, Middle East Studies Association; MEW, Middle East Watch; NAS, National Academy of Sciences; PHR, Physicians for Human Rights. ENGINEERS (76) 'ADNAWI AL-'ADAWI: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Homs (AI Index 4/90) AHMAD AHA'BAN: 62-year-old engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike (AIUSA brochure 1983) IBRAHIM AKHRAS: 38-year-old engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Idlib by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence); married (AI Index 8/ 83; AI Index 4/90) 35

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36 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA MUHAMMAD HASSAN 'ALWANI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Deir al-Zor following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83) KHALID 'ANTAR: 49-year-old mechanical engineer; arrested in Decem- ber 1980 in Latakiyya by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence); married with two children (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90; AIUSA brochure 1983) DIHAM ATASSI: 38-year-old engineer; arrested in September 1980 in Homs by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) 'AWNA 'AWNA: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Banias (AI Index 4/90; AI Index 5/21/90) BADR 'AWNI: 44-year-old engineer; arrested in May 1980 in Aleppo by Amn al-Dawla (State Security); married; may have been released (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92; NAS) 'ADNAN 'AYRUT: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Banias (AI Index 4/90) MOUNIR CHA'BOU: engineer; reportedly arrested on October 17, 1987, in Latakiyya when security forces could not find his brother, Bahjat Cha'bou (CDF Annual Review 1990-1) RADWAN DAHHAN: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1- day national strike (AI Index 8/83) AHMAD SHAFIQ DALI: engineer; arrested in 198O in Hama followingl- day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) JAMAL DALI: 34-year-old engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Latakiyya by Al-Amn al-'Askari (Military Security) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) RIAD DALI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) IMAD 'ABD AL-SHAIKH DIB: 36-year-old engineer; arrested in August 1980 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) HASAN JAMAL AL-DIN: 41-year-old civil engineer; arrested in Novem- ber 1980 in Homs by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) TALAL DUFI: 39-year-old agricultural engineer; arrested in January 1980 in Latikiyya; married with one child (AIUSA brochure 1983) AHMAD PARIS: 42-year-old engineer; arrested on December 11, 1980, in

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APPENDIXES 37 Latakiyya by Al-Amn al-'Askari (Military Security); married with two chil- dren (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) KHALID PARIS: 49-year-old agricultural engineer; arrested on Novem- ber 12, 1980, in Latakiyya by Amn al-Dawla (State Security); married with two children (AIUSA brochure 1983; AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) BADR AL-DIN FATAL: 47-year-old engineer; arrested in September 1986 in Aleppo for suspected membership in prohibited Nasserist Popular Orga- nization; reportedly held in Aleppo Central Prison (Index on Censorship 1/87; AI 7/24/89; CDF Engineers List 1992) 'ALI GHABSHA: 50-year-old engineer; arrested in 1980 in Idlib for sus- pected membership in prohibited Nasserist Popular Organization; detained in Political Security Center in Idlib (Index on Censorship 1/87; AI 7/24/89; CDF Engineers List 1992) MUHAMMAD ALI HABIB: 39-year-old lecturer in engineering and eco- nomics at University of Latakiyya; arrested in December 1991 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) and sentenced in March 1992 to 9 years' imprisonment with hard labor for belonging to CDF and for issuing a leaflet, together with other human rights activists, in defense of human rights; reportedly mistreated in detention; held in Saidnaya Prison (AI UA 1/9/92 & 1/29/92; AI Medical Index 6/15/92; MEW "Syria: Human Rights Workers on Trial," 3/9/92; MESA 4/14/92; NAS; CDF Academics List 1992) MAZY AD HADDAD: 40-year-old doctor of civil engineering from Der'a; arrested in 1983 in Damascus by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intel- ligence) for suspected leadership role in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; reportedly tortured; held in Saidnaya Prison; unmarried (CDF Engineers List 1992; NAS) 'UBAID MUSTAFA AL-HANI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Al-Raqqa following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) SALAH BIN 'ALI AL-IBRAHIM: electrical engineer; arrested in August 1980 in Idlib by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence); married with one son (AIUSA brochure 1983; AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) YUSUF MUHAMMAD SA'ID JABR: engineer; arrested in August 1980 in Idlib (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) FATEH JAMOUS: 44-year-old mechanical engineer from Bisnada; re- portedly arrested in March 1982 for suspected affiliation with a banned communist political party; held in Saidnaya Prison; married with two chil- dren (MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92; CDF Engineers List 1992; NAS)

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38 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA ADNAN ABU JANAB: 40-year-old civil engineer from Homs; reportedly arrested on October 16, 1980, for suspected involvement in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; held in 'Adra Civil Prison; unmarried (NAS; CDF Engineers List 1992) 'ADNAN AL-JASSIM: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1- day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) ALI JOUBAILI: 42-year-old geophysical engineer from Latakiyya; ar- rested in 1982 in Damascus by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelli- gence) for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; reportedly tortured; detained in Saidnaya Prison; married with two children (CDF Engineers List 1992; NAS) 'ABD ALLAH AHMAD JUD'A (JAD'A): engineer; arrested in 1980 in Kama following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) MUNZIR JUM'A: 32-year-old civil engineer from Homs; reportedly ar- rested in February 1992 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for membership in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held incommunicado prior to transfer to Saidnaya Prison; may be facing trial by state security court (AI UA 5/7/92, 2/24/92; CDF 4/29/92; AI UA 6/15/92; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92) SALIM KHAIRBEK: 44-year-old mechanical engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Damascus; worked for Syrian airline; member of Damascus Engi- neers' Association; refused to sign a statement renouncing political activi- ties in December 1991 and therefore was not released; held in 'Adra Civil Prison; unmarried (AI "Syria: Indefinite Political Imprisonment," 7/92; NAS) 'ABD AL-GHANI KHARRAT: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo fol- lowing 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) HAITHAM AL-KHATIB: engineer; arrested on April 1, 1981 in Idlib (AI Index 4/90) MUHAMMAD AL-KHATIB: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo fol- lowing 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) 'ABD Al-QADIR KOUJOU: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Hama follow- ing 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) FADIL MA'AKADEH: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1- day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) 'ABD AL-KARIM MAHSHIYYAH: civil engineer; arrested in November 1980 in Latakiyya by Al-Amn al-'Askari (Military Security); married with one son (AIUSA brochure 1983; AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90)

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APPENDIXES 39 TALAL MAHSHIYYAH: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Latakiyya follow- ing 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) BASSAM MALI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) NIZAR MARADNI: 36-year-old assistant professor, Faculty of Civil En- gineering, University of Damascus; arrested on September 19, 1987, report- edly after sending a pamphlet to Engineers' Association advocating restora- tion of democratic freedoms in Syria; also suspected of involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly tortured; held in Fara' Falastin detention center or in Tadmur Military Prison; married with two children; wife also detained (MESA 12/19/90; AI UA 10/25/91; CDF Engi- neers List 1992; AI "Syria: Indefinite Political Imprisonment," 7/92) MUNIF MULHIM: 41-year-old mechanical engineer; arrested in August 1981 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; held in Saidnaya Prison; subjected to severe mistreatment; reportedly in need of medical care for possible tumor; two brothers and their wives ar- rested in August 1987; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty Inter- national (AI UA 10/25/91; MEW "Human Rights in Syria," 1990; AI "Syria: Indefinite Political Imprisonment," 7/92) NABIL MOULHEM: 30-year-old civil engineer; reportedly arrested on August 15, 1987, for suspected membership in prohibited Party for Commu- nist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison (NAS; CDF Engineers List 1992) 'ABD AL-HALIM 'ABD AL-MUN'IM: 51-year-old engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI 4/90) 'UMAR MUSA: 33-year-old engineer; arrested in 1981 in Idlib following 1-day national strike (AI Index 4/90) FATIH NAJJAR: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) NADIR QARQANAWI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1- day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) ADIB QARTAWI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) GHASSAN QASSIS (or KASSIS): 33-year-old lecturer from Yabrud, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Damascus; arrested on September 2 or 9, 1987, by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly shot at time of arrest and tortured; in need of medical attention; reportedly held in

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40 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA Saidnaya Prison; unmarried (MESA 6/10/91; AI UA 10/25/91; CDF 5/1/91; AI "Syria: Indefinite Political Imprisonment," 7/92; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92; CDF Engineers List 1992) MU'TAZ QATLABI: engineer; arrested in 1982 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; held in Saidnaya Prison; may have been released (NAS; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92) ABD AL-MAJID QATTANI: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Idlib (AI In- dex 4/90) TALAL RA'I: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Latakiyya (AI Index 4/90) MUHAMMAD SAYYID RASSAS: 40-year-old engineer; arrested in No- vember 1980 in Latakiyya by Al-Amn al-'Askari (Military Security) report- edly for suspected membership in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; may have been released (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) 'USAMA SA'DUN: engineer; arrested in August 1980 in Aleppo (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) BASS AM SAFUR: 33-year-old civil engineer; arrested in October 1980 in Homs by Amn al-Siyassi (Political Security) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) MUSTAPHA SAHYUNI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Banias following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) QASSIM AL-SA'ID: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Homs (AI Index 4/90) FARID BIN 'ADNAN ABU-SALID: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) RASUL SARRAJ: 38-year-old engineer; arrested in September 1980 in Homs by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) SHAKIR BIN 'UMR SARWANI: engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) MUHAMMAD 'ALI SATIF: engineer; arrested April 1, 1981, in Idlib (AI Index 4/90) AHMAD SHA'BAN: 62 year-old engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo; married with two children (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) BASS AM NAJM AL-DIN SIBA'I: 43-year-old engineer; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 5/21/90) MUHAMMAD ZAHI SUFI: 46-year-old civil engineer; arrested in De-

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APPENDIXES 41 cember 1980 in Latakiyya by Al-Amn al-'Askari (Military Security) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) TALAL SUFI: 38-year-old agricultural engineer; arrested January 19, 1981, in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike; married with one child (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) SHAWKI AL-TABA: agricultural engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Homs (AI Index 8/83; AI 4/90) 'ABD AL-LATIF TALIB: engineer; arrested in December 1980 in Latakiyya (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) 'ISSAM AL-TARABULSI: engineer; arrested in 1981 in Latakiyya (AI Index 4/90) USAMA AL-TARABULSI: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya fol- lowing 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) BASHSHAR TARAZI: 43-year-old civil engineer; arrested in May 1980 in Homs by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) following 1- day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) HAMID HAMID AL-'UMR: engineer; arrested in 1980 in Al-Hassaka in 1980 following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) SAMIWALID: 36-year-old engineer; arrested in November 1980 in Latakiyya by Al-Amn al-'Askari (Military Security) (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) HASSAN ZAITOUN: engineer; arrested in June 1980 in Anadin following 1-day national strike (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90) AKRAM ZOUAIER: agronomy engineer from Kama; arrested in 1983 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; held in Saidnaya Prison; unmarried (CDF Engineers List 1992; NAS; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92) ZUHAIR ZUHRI: 35-year-old military engineer; arrested on March 10, 1980, in Idlib by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) follow- ing 1-day national strike; married (AI Index 8/83; AI Index 4/90; AIUSA brochure 1983). SCIENTISTS (6) Chemists HUSSEIN BAKR: 41-year-old professor of organic chemistry, University of Homs or Damascus; arrested in 1982 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Mili-

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42 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA tary Intelligence) for alleged membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; reportedly tortured; held in Saidnaya Prison; married with one child (CDF Academics List 1992; NAS) ABDUL AL-KHADER ISTANBULI: 38-year-old chemistry teacher from Hama; arrested in Aleppo by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelli- gence) for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Pary; held in Saidnaya Prison; married with one child (NAS) Geologist NIHAD NAHHAS: 35-year-old geologist from Hama; arrested in May 1980 for suspected membership in prohibited Party for Communist Action; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International; held in Saidnaya Prison; reportedly tortured (NAS; AI French Section, July 1992) Topographer MUSTAFA KHALIFA: 43-year-old topographer; arrested in January 1982 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for suspected involve- ment in prohibited Party for Communist Action; previously detained in 1979-1980; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; adopted as prisoner of con- science by Amnesty International; married with one child (AI UA 10/25/91; CDF Engineers List 1991; AI Newsletter 8/92; NAS) Economist MOUNTHER KHADDAM: 43-year-old professor of political economy, Tishrin University, Latakiyya; arrested in 1981 in Latakiyya for alleged membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; detained in al-Mezze Military Prison (MESA 12/19/90; CDF 5/1/91; NAS) Sociologist NIZAR BEN ALI NAIF (NAYYUF): 36-year-old sociologist; arrested in January 1992 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) and sen- tenced on March 17, 1992, to 10 years' imprisonment and hard labor for belonging to the CDF and issuing a leaflet, together with other human rights activists, in defense of human rights; reportedly tortured under interroga- tion; held in Saidnaya Prison (AI 3/20/92; AI Medical Index 6/15/92; MEW "Syria: Human Rights Workers on Trial," 3/9/92; NAS)

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APPENDIXES 43 HEALTH PROFESSIONALS (55) ZAHI 'ABBADI: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo follow- ing 1-day national strike; may have died in detention (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/91) MUHAMMAD 'UTHMAN AL-ABRASH: 37-year-old dentist; arrested in 1980 following 1-day national strike; reportedly detained in Tadmur Mili- tary Prison (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) MUSTAFA 'ARAQIL: medical doctor; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike; reportedly detained in Tadmur Military Prison (AI Index 4/84; AI Index 5/21/90) 'ABD AL-QAHIR AL-ATASSI: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; unmarried (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) YASIR 'AWNI 'AWNA: 38-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1-day national strike; reportedly held in Tadmur Mili- tary Prison; married, visited by family on several occasions (AI Index 4/84; AI 1/89; M Index 5/21/90) FARHAN AL-AZHARI: 35-year-old veterinary surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; unmarried (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) MUHAMMAD BARAD'I: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1-day national strike; reportedly held in Tadmur Military Prison (AI Index 4/84) MUHAMMAD AS'AD BISATA: health professional; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International; reported missing or may have been released (PHR newsletter summer/fall 1990; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/91; CDF 12/91) MUHAMMAD FAIZ BISMAR: gynecologist; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; may have died in detention (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/91) 'ABD AL-'AZIZ BIN 'ABD Al-QADIR BITAR: 37-year-old veterinary surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; M Index 5/21/90) 'ABD AL-MAJID BIN 'ABD AL-QADIR BITAR: 39-year-old veteri- nary surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) AYMAN DAGHESTANI: radiologist from Homs; arrested in September

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44 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA 1987 for suspected membership in prohibited Party for Communist Action; held in Saidnaya Prison; married with one child (CDF Health Professionals List 1993; NAS) AHMAD DALATI: ophthalmologist (or studying ophthalmology); arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; reportedly held in Tadmur Military Prison (AI Index 1/89; AI 4/84; AI Index 5/21/90) MUWAFFAQ 'ABD AL-DAYIM: 36-year-old general practitioner; ar- rested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89) 'ABD AL-HAMID DIAB: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) FAWWAZ TAQI AL-DIN: veterinary surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; unmarried (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/ 90) IBRAHIM PARIS: 42-year-old pediatrician; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1 -day national strike; reportedly detained in Tadmur Military Prison; married with three children (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) AHMAD FAIZ AL-FAWWAZ: 49-year-old medical doctor; arrested on October 6, 1980, in Damascus for membership in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau and for criticizing government policies; currently detained in 'Adra Civil Prison; reportedly tortured during interrogation; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International; married with children (AI 4/5/89; AI 6/28/90; PHR Newsletter summer/fall 1990; CDF Health Professionals List 1992; NAS) MUHAMMAD GHANIM: 34-year-old health professional from Latakiyya; arrested in February 1992 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelli- gence) for membership in prohibited Party for Communist Action; report- edly held incommunicado in Fara' al-Tahqiq al-'Askari in Damascus prior to transfer to Saidnaya Prison; may be facing trial before state security court (CDF 4/29/92; AI UA 2/24/92; AI "Health Care and Human Rights," 4/92; AI UA 6/15/92; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92) MUHAMMAD HALIMA: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/91) US AM A AL-HASHIMI: dentist; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1- day national strike; unmarried (AI Index 4/84; AI 1/89; AI Index 5/21/91) RAFIQ IBRAHIM IBRAHIM: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) AKRAM SALIM ISHTY: 34-year-old Lebanese physician and lecturer at

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APPENDIXES 45 American University in Beirut; arrested January 13, 1992, by security forces and taken to Damascus; reportedly arrested to force his brother, member of pro-Iraq wing of Ba'ath Party, to give himself up; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison (AI "Health Care and Human Rights," 10/92; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92) ISMAIL ISTANBULI: 35-year-old doctor from Kama; arrested in 1983 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; held in Saidnaya Prison (NAS) JALAL JALAGHI: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Hama follow- ing 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89) DARWISH JANU: 36-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike; may have died in detention (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/91) MAHMUD KASSAB: surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) 'ABD AL-AZIZ AL-KHAYYIR: 41-year-old doctor from Latakiyya; ar- rested in February 1992 by Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya (Military Intelligence) for membership in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held incommunicado prior to transfer to Saidnaya Prison; may have been tried by state security court and sentenced to 8 years' imprisonment; married with one child (CDF 4/29/92; AI UA 2/11/92, 2/24/92; AI "Health Care and Human Rights," 4/92; AI UA 6/15/92; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92; NAS; CDF Health Professionals List 1992) HASSAN AL-MUFTI: 37-year-old gynecologist; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike; reportedly detained in Tadmur Military Prison; married with one child (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) QASIM MUSA: 44-year-old ear, nose, and throat specialist; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike; reportedly detained in Tadmur Military Prison; married with three children (AI Index 4/84; AI I/ 89; AI Index 5/21/90) MUNIB ZAHRI AL-NAJJAR: veterinary surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) KHALED AL-NASSER: 42-year-old kidney specialist; arrested in Sep- tember 1986 in Aleppo on charges of being General Secretary of "Nasserite organization of Syria"; detained in Aleppo Central Prison; married with three children (NAS; MEW "Throwing Away the Key," 11/92; Index on Censorship 1/87; AI 7/20/89; CDF Health Professionals List 1992) MUHAMMAD NINO: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Idlib fol-

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46 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA lowing 1-day national strike; held at Tadmur Military Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International; may have died in deten- tion (AI Index 1/89; PHR newsletter summer/fall 1990; AAAS newsletter spring/summer 1990; AI 10/91) MUHAMMAD MUKHLIS QANNUT: 37-year-old surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike; unmarried; may have died in detention (AI 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/91) AHMAD QARAQUZ: 35-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; married; may have been released (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AAAS Directory of Persecuted Scientists, Engineers and Health Professionals 5/92) FAWZI RIDA: pharmacist; member of National Command; arrested in early 1970s with other government officials (MEW "Human Rights in Syria," 1990; NAS) MUHAMMAD MANSUR AL-RIFA'I: ear, nose, and throat specialist; arrested in 1980 in Horns following 1-day national strike; unmarried (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) MUHAMMAD 'AKIF RUSTUM: 41-year-old pediatrician; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike; married with three chil- dren; may have died in detention (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/ 91) BADR AL-DIN AL-SAFADI: physician; arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike; held in Tadmur Military Prison (AI Index 4/84) HASSAN SA'ID: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo follow- ing 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) ALI SAREM: 36-year-old dentist; former Army officer from Deir Mama; arrested by Syrian security agents in Damascus in July 1984 for member- ship in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly tortured during interrogation; believed to be in poor health; held at Tadmur Military Prison or Saidnaya Prison; allowed brief visit every three months with family members; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International (AI UA 2/24/ 88; PHR; AI "Health Care and Human Rights," 4/88; CDF Health Profes- sionals List 1992) FAWWAZ AHMAD SHARBAK: ear, nose and throat specialist; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; married; held in Tadmur Military Prison (AI Index 4/84; AI 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90)

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APPENDIXES 47 JAMAL SHUMAN: 33-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike; married (AI Index 1/89) MUHAMMAD NASIR AL-SIBA'I: 47-year-old anesthesiologist; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; married with three chil- dren (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) TAWFIQ DRAQ AL-SIBA'I: 45-year-old neurologist; ran a medical clinic in Homs; detained in May 1980 after the Syrian censors intercepted a letter from his relatives in Saudi Arabia expressing concern about the political situation in Syria; accused of involvement in matters affecting state secu- rity; held in al-Mezze Military Prison in Damascus; has not been charged or tried; studied neurology in Montreal in 1973; married with five children (AI Matchbox 11/81; AI Newsletter 4/87; AI "Health Personnel," 4/91; NAS) FADIL SIRAJIYYA: ophthalmologist; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo follow- ing 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) MUHAMMAD DIB TAHMAZ: 46-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) QADDUR 'UBAIDAN: 52-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike; married with five children (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) USAMA 'URFALI: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) 'ABD AL-SALAM 'UTHMAN: 43-year-old dentist; arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1-day national strike; married; family allowed to visit him (AI Index 4/84; AI 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) MUSTAFA 'UTHMAN: surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1- day national strike; reportedly detained in Saidnaya Prison; married (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) 'ADIL 'UTHMANI: dentist; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1- day national strike; may have died in detention (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90; AI 10/91) 'ABD AL-LATIF YUNUSU: 49-year-old veterinary surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike; married with seven children (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/90) NICOLA AL-ZAHR: 47-year-old pharmacist from Damascus; arrested in October 1980 by Al-Amn al-Siyassi (Political Security) for suspected mem- bership in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; held in 'Adra Civil

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48 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA Prison; refused to renounce political activities and therefore was not re- leased in 1991 ammesty; married with two children (AI 6/28/90; NAS; CDF Health Professionals List 1992) SA'ID ZAIDAN: 35-year-old general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike; unmarried (AI Index 1/89; AI Index 5/21/ 90)