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Appendix C Engineers and Health Professionals Reported Detained or Imprisoned This appendix lists engineers and health professionals who are reported to be detained or imprisoned, but not all information about their cases could be fully verified. What information exists comes from Amnesty Interna- tional, the Committees for the Defense of Democratic Freedoms and Human Rights in Syria (CDF), and Middle East Watch. We believe, but have not always been able to confirm, that the individuals on this list are prisoners of conscience. ENGINEERS (55) TARIF ABDELRAZZAK: 32-year-old civil engineer from Hama; report- edly arrested in May 1986 and held in Saidnaya Prison AHMAD 'ALI 'ABDUH: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1989 for sus- pected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison NABIH AL-'AFIF: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1986 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison SHAIKH HASSAN 'AHD: 36-year-old engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; married with two children 49

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50 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA KARIM AKKARI: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1986; believed to be held in Fara' Falastin detention center JAMIL AIZOUQI: engineer from Tartus; reportedly arrested on October 18, 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Ac- tion; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; married NIHAD (or NIHAS) ALI: 30-year-old mechanical engineer from Tartus; reportedly arrested on November 7, 1987, and held in Latakiyya Military Prison; unmarried MAHMUD AMER: engineer from Homs; reportedly arrested in 1983 for suspected involvement in prohibited Ba'ath Party faction IBRAHIM BERAQDAR: petrochemical engineer from Homs; reportedly arrested on October 15, 1987, and held in Homs Military Prison 'ABD AL-KARIM DARWISH: engineer; reportedly arrested in April 1986 and again in 1992 for sheltering in his house a member of a banned political party 'ISSAM DIMASHQI: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1982 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action JAMAL SAED AL-DIN (or EDDIN): 33-year-old civil engineer from Dar'a; reportedly arrested in April 1986 and held in Saidnaya Prison YOUSEF DREIBATI: agronomy engineer from Latakiyya; reportedly ar- rested in 1982 for suspected involvement in prohibited Ba'ath Party faction MUHAMMAD GHANEM: 30-year-old electrical engineer from Latakiyya; reportedly arrested on October 28, 1987, for suspected involvement in pro- hibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Fara' Falastin de- tention center JIHAD GHANNAM: civil aviation engineer from Latakiyya; reportedly arrested in 1983 for suspected involvement in prohibited Ba'ath Party fac- tion ALI HADLEH: 34-year-old engineer from Latakiyya; reportedly arrested in October 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Commu- nist Action; reportedly held in Latakiyya Military Prison or in Saidnaya Prison; married HAYTHAM HAMOUD: 30-year-old mechanical engineer from Tartus; reportedly arrested on October 7, 1987, for suspected involvement in pro- hibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison 'ABD AL-SHAIKH HASSAN: 36-year-old engineer; reportedly arrested

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APPENDIXES 51 in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Ac- tion; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison HASSAN HAYAWI: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1982 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison SAMIR HAYYAR: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action MAEN IBRAHIM: 32-year-old electrical engineer from Latakiyya; report- edly arrested on October 28, 1987, and held in Fara' Falastin detention center KASSIR 'ID: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1982 for suspected involve- ment in prohibited Ba'ath Party faction MA'EN JAMOUS: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 and held at Fara' Falastin detention center BASSAM AL-JUM'AH: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for sus- pected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison NA'EL KABAKH: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison AHMAD KALAJI: 38-year-old engineer from Qataifa near Damascus; reportedly arrested in November 1980 in connection with Moslem Brother- hood; also detained for one month in early 1980 ADNAN MAHFOUDH (or MAHFOUZ): 34-year-old electrical engineer from Hama; reportedly arrested on September 1, 1987, for suspected in- volvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Tadmur Military Prison; married with one child GHASSAN MARDINI: 42-year-old civil engineer from Damascus; report- edly arrested on December 2, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; married with two children MUHAMMAD MA'ROUF: 37-year-old agronomy engineer from Jableh; reportedly arrested on October 5, 1987, for suspected involvement in pro- hibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Fara' Falastin de- tention center HASSAN MAROUF: engineer from Tartus; reportedly arrested on Octo-

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52 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA ber 24, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison AHMAD MASOUD: 33-year-old agronomy engineer from Kama; report- edly arrested on March 8, 1988, and held in Saidnaya Prison JALAL MASOUD: 42-year-old agronomy engineer from Salamieh; re- portedly arrested in February 1986 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison ZAFER AL-MIMAR (or MU'AMMAR): 32-year-old agronomy engineer from Salamieh; reportedly arrested on December 20, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison YASER MOULHEM: 32-year-old agronomy engineer from Mouhazzam; reportedly arrested in January 1987 and held in Saidnaya Prison YAHYA MOURTADA: 34-year-old engineer from Damascus; reportedly arrested on September 8, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; married 'ABD AL-KARIM MUTAWWAJ: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action AHMAD NAJM: 35-year-old agronomy engineer from Masiaf; reportedly arrested in May 1985 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison WAFIQ NUQARI: 35-year-old civil engineer from Homs; reportedly ar- rested on October 10, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison IBRAHIM BIN QADDAR: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for sus- pected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action ALI QADOUR: engineer from Aleppo; reportedly arrested on August 24, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Fara' Falastin detention center AHMAD QASSAB: 35-year-old agronomy engineer from Jableh; report- edly arrested on October 10, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison GHASSAN RA'IS QAYS: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for sus- pected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison JOUM'A AL-RASHED: 39-year-old civil engineer from Der el-Zor; re-

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APPENDIXES 53 portedly arrested on October 28, 1980, for suspected involvement in Nasserist political party; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; married with one child; may have been released TARIF 'ABD AL-RAZZAQ: 32-year-old engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison BARAKAT SALIM: 35-year-old agronomy engineer from Latakiyya; ar- rested on December 22, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison; married with three children HASSAN (or AKRAM) SE'EWI: 35-year-old agronomy engineer from Mayadin; reportedly arrested in March 1982 and held in Saidnaya Prison MOUNIR SHA'BO: 29-year-old mechanical engineer from Latakiyya; re- portedly arrested on October 17, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohib- ited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Fara' Falastin or Mili- tary Interrogation Branch detention center KEMAL SHARIF: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison HASSAN 'AHD AL-SHEIKH: 35-year-old engineer from Masiaf; report- edly arrested on September 12, 1987, and held in Saidnaya Prison; married with two children GHABI SHI'BOU: 45-year-old engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; report- edly held in Saidnaya Prison DAOWD SHIHADEH: engineer from Deir al-Zor; reportedly arrested in 1991 for suspected involvement with prohibited Arab Socialist Unity Party, a Nasserite political group, and for opposition to Gulf war. MUHAMMAD AL-SIBA'I: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1987 for sus- pected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison FAWWAZ WANOUS: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1986 for suspected involvement in prohibited Ba'ath Party faction JAMAL YANES: engineer; reportedly arrested in 1992 for suspected sup- port of CDF; held in Saidnaya Prison WA'IL ZAHRAWI: 37-year-old engineer from Homs; reportedly arrested on March 26, 1989, and held in Saidnaya Prison; married with one child

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54 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA HEALTH PROFESSIONALS (46) KHULUD AL-'ABDALLAH: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike TAHSIN AL-'ABDALLAH: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; may have been released in 1991 SHAM ZAIN AL-'ABIDIN: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike MUHAMMAD 'AFISSA: health professional; believed to have been ar- rested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-BARI AL-AKHRAS: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 following 1-day strike HISHAM 'ARNA'UT: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike DR. 'ASSAF: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-'AZIZ 'ATTURA: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike MUWAFFAQ 'AYYASH: 39-year-old health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike NIMR BARAZI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike AHMAD FADHIL AL-BASH: health professional; reportedly arrested in 1986 for suspected membership in banned party KAMAL KABA DAR: 37-year-old health professional; believed to have been arrested between 1980 and 1982 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike RA'D DHOWEHI: 37-year-old veterinarian from Mayadin; reportedly ar- rested in March 1982; held in Saidnaya Prison MUSTAFA FARJI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-FATTAH: 63-year-old health professional; reportedly arrested in 1980 for suspected membership in a banned party FU'AD FI'AWI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike

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APPENDIXES 55 'ABD AL-MAJID GHAZAL: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike MUHAMMAD 'ALI GHAZAL: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike BASSIS FAWWAZ AL-HAJ: 33-year-old health professional; reportedly arrested in 1989 FAWWAZ BASSIS HAMOUDA: 32-year-old medical technician from Deir el-Zor; reportedly arrested on February 27, 1989, and held in Saidnaya Prison; unmarried AHMAD HAZIFA: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1-day national strike HABIB IBRAHIM: health professional from al-Hasakeh; reportedly ar- rested on December 10, 1987, for suspected membership in a banned party; believed to be held in Saidnaya Prison MARWAN AL-IDLIBI: health professional; believed to have been ar- rested in Damascus in 1980-1982 following 1-day national strike RADWAN 'IQRIN: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike HUSSEIN JOUM'A 'ISSA: 33-year-old health professional from Qunaitra; reportedly arrested on February 15, 1988, for suspected membership in a banned party; held in Saidnaya Prison HUSAIN JARRAH: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike NADIM JAWDA: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike SALIH AL-KHOJA: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike; may have been re- leased in 1991 ADIB KIRDAWI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-RAHMAN KITTANJI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike WALID MA'MAR: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike NAJI MUHABEK: health professional; believed to have been arrested in

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56 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison JAMAL RADHWAN: anesthetist from Qunaitra: reportedly arrested on September 12, 1987, and held in Saidnaya Prison; married with two chil- dren 'ARFAN RASHIDQI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike BASHIR SAIFU: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike TAISIR SAMSAM: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Kama following 1-day national strike MUHAMMAD ZAKARIYYA SAQQAL: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; may have been released in 1991 'ABD AL-'AZIZ 'ABD AL-QADIR SAWWAN: health professional; be- lieved to have been arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike RIAD 'ABD AL-QADIR SAWWAN: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike SA'ID SHAKIR: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike; may have been released in 1991 'ABD AL-QADIR SHALLAT: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike KHADR AL-SUTARI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike; may have been released in 1991 'ABD AL-RAHMAN TUTU: 39-year-old health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike; married; may have been released in 1991 HUSAM 'UTHMAN: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Tartus following 1-day national strike MAJID 'UTHMANI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-FATTAH AL-WADI: health professional; believed to have been arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike

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Appendix D Engineers and Health Professionals Believed Dead or Who Have Disappeared in Detention This appendix lists colleagues who are reported to have died in deten- tion, to have been killed or executed, or who have disappeared in detention. Some of these people are also listed in Appendix B. The information comes from Amnesty International (AI), the Committees for the Defense of Demo- cratic Freedoms and Human Rights in Syria (CDF), Middle East Watch (MEW), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). COLLEAGUES REPORTED TO HAVE DIED IN DETENTION Engineer MUNIR FRANSIS: 30-year-old civil engineer; died on April 14 or 15, 1990, in al-Muwassat Civil Hospital in Damascus due to internal bleeding; arrested with 14 others in Yabrud at the end of March after anti-government slogans were found written on town walls; when his coffin was returned to his family, his body reportedly bore the marks of beatings (confirmed by MEW, AI, and NAS) Health Professionals ZAHI 'ABBADI: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo follow- ing 1-day national strike (also listed in Appendix B) 57

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58 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA MUHAMMAD FAIZ BISMAR: gynecologist; arrested in 1980 in Homs following 1-day national strike (also listed in Appendix B) AHMAD AL-BUSHI: health professional; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo fol- lowing 1-day national strike; adopted as prisoner of conscience by AI; death confirmed by AI in April 1992 DARWISH JANU: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike (also listed in Appendix B) MUHAMMAD NINO: general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Idlib fol- lowing 1-day national strike; held at Tadmur Military Prison (also listed in Appendix B) MUHAMMAD MUKHLIS QANNUT: surgeon; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike (also listed in Appendix B) MUHAMMAD 'AKIF RUSTUM: pediatrician; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1-day national strike (also listed in Appendix B) 'ADIL 'UTHMANI: dentist; arrested in 1980 in Latakiyya following 1- day national strike (also listed in Appendix B) ENGINEERS WHO DISAPPEARED IN DETENTION OUSAMA AL-HASSAN: 34-year-old civil engineer from Tartus; report- edly arrested in 1987 or 1989 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action MOUDAR AL-JUNDI: 34-year-old civil engineer from Tartus; reportedly arrested on September 20, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; detained in Fara' Falastin detention center, where he was reportedly tortured; his wife, Munira Huejeh, also a civil engineer, was arrested on political grounds in December 1987 and released in November 1991 HEALTH PROFESSIONALS WHO WERE KILLED OR WHO DISAPPEARED IN HAMA 'UMAR AL-SHISHAKLI: president of Syrian Ophthalmological Society and officer of Hama Medical Assocation; reportedly tortured and executed by security forces in late 1980 or early 1981 The following doctors are also reported to have been killed at around the same time:

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APPENDIXES 59 ALAAL BARAZI MULHIM BARUDI TAHER HADDAD WALID AL-HAFIZ 'ABD AL-KADER KONDAQJI AHMED QASSAB KODR AL-SHISHAKLI' KAMAL AL-SOUAD

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Appendix E Scientists, Engineers and Health Professionals Recently Released This appendix lists 49 colleagues who were released in recent amnes- ties and provides information about their cases. The information comes from Amnesty International, the Committees for the Defense of Democratic Freedoms and Human Rights in Syria, Index on Censorship, Lawyers Com- mittee for Human Rights, Middle East Studies Association, Physicians for Human Rights, and the National Academy of Sciences. SCIENTIST (1) Economist SALMAN 'ABDALLAH: released December 1991; 62-year-old former member of National Command of Ba'ath Party; abducted by Syrian forces in Lebanon in April 1971 and detained at al-Mezze Military Prison for 20 years, together with 17 others who served or were closely connected to the previous government (1966-1970) ENGINEERS (32) MUHAMMAD 'ALI AJJAJ: released December 1991; arrested in 1980 in Hama following 1-day national strike ABDUL AL-HADI AKHRAS: released December 1991; civil engineer 60

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APPENDIXES 61 arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; held in 'Adra Civil Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International NAKED BADAUYYA: released November 1991; 35-year-old civil engi- neer; arrested in Damascus in September 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; held in Douma Prison 'ABD AL-KARIM BARAKAT: released December 1991; 43-years-old; arrested in May 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike RIAD AL-BASTATI: released December 1991; civil engineer and former Secretary-General of Damascus Branch of Syrian Engineers' Association; arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike; held in 'Adra Civil Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International 'ADIL BITAR: reportedly released 1991; arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike (release not confirmed) SAHAR AL-BUNNI: released December 1991; 35-year-old civil engineer from Hama; arrested in 1987; married to topographer, Mustafa Khalifa,who was arrested in 1982 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action; held in Douma Prison (see Appendix B) MOUSSA DALATI: released 1991; maritime mechanical engineer from Hama; reportedly arrested in 1982 for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party JABER DIB: released 1991; agronomy engineer; arrested in 1983 in Latakiyya for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party NIZAR DIB: released 1990; arrested in 1982 in Latakiyya for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party ABDELRAHIM DMERIYYA: released December 16, 1991; 40-year-old former assistant in Department of Civil Engineering, University of Dam- ascus; arrested in 1986 for suspected involvement in prohibited Nasserist Popular Organization BASS AM GHAITH: released 1991; 30-year-old civil engineer; arrested in Yabrud on September 8, 1987, for suspected involvement in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; held in Saidnaya Prison YOUSSEF GHAITH: released December 16, 1991; 29-years-old; arrested in April 1990 in Yabrud after antigovernment slogans were found written on town walls; under suspicion because brother, Bassam, was arrested and imprisoned (see above) RAA'FAT GHANEM: released 1992; electrical engineer from Tartus; re-

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62 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA portedly arrested in 1982 for suspected membership in prohibited Demo- cratic Ba'ath Party SAMIR HADDAD: released December 1991; 35-year-old civil engineer; arrested on April 5, 1990 in Yabrud after antigovernment slogans were found written on town walls; suspected of being member of prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; reportedly tortured and then hospitalized for kidney failure and respiratory arrest MAY AL-HAFEZ: released December 1991; 37-year-old former lecturer at Faculty of Engineering, Aleppo University; arrested in fall of 1987 in Aleppo for suspected membership in prohibited Party for Communist Ac- tion; previously detained from August 27 to October 2, 1991; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International SALTI AL-HAWCH: released December 1991; petroleum engineer from Der'a; arrested in 1983 for suspected membership in prohibited Democratic Ba'ath Party; held in Tadmur Military Prison until 1987 and then in Saidnaya Prison MUNIRA HUEJEH: released November 1991; 35-year-old civil engineer from Salaieh; arrested in December 1987; married to civil engineer, Moudar al-Jundi, who was arrested in 1987 for suspected involvement in prohibited Party for Communist Action and subsequently disappeared; held in Douma Prison (see Appendix D) 'AIDA (ADIDEH) KA'DAN: released 1991; female engineer; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike JALAL KHANJI: released December 25, 1991; 42-year-old former lec- turer at University of Aleppo; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; member of Central Committee of Syrian Engineers' Asso- ciation; detained in 'Adra Civil Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International GHASSAN KHOURI: released December 16, 1991; 34-year-old assistant in Department of Architecture, University of Damascus; arrested in 1987 or 1988; held at Saidnaya Prison HUSSEIN MADHKHANA; released December 14, 1991; civil engineer; arrested in 1986 for suspected membership in prohibited Nasserist political party MUHAMMAD AL-MAHMOUD: released December 15, 1991; 41-year- old agronomy engineer; arrested in September 1987 for suspected involve- ment in prohibited Party for Communist Action; held in Saidnaya Prison JIHAD MSOUTI: released fall 1991; 44-year-old former assistant profes-

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APPENDIXES 63 sor of mechanical and electrical engineering, University of Damascus; ar- rested in March 1980 following 1-day national strike; held in 'Adra Civil Prison GHASSAN NAJJAR: released December 20, 1991; 54-year-old mechani- cal engineer and former lecturer at University of Aleppo; arrested in March 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike; held at 'Adra Civil Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International SAMIR NU'AYSA: released May 1992; civil engineer; arrested on Janu- ary 18, 1992, and sentenced to 3 years' imprisonment for withholding infor- mation from security forces about his brother, Aktham, an active CDF law- yer; released after 5 months in prison HIND QAHWAJI: released December 1991; 36-year-old agricultural en- gineer from Tal al-Nin; arrested in March 1984 for the second time for belonging to prohibited Party for Communist Action; reportedly tortured; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International; held in Douma Prison 'ALI AL-RIFA'I: released 1991; 42-year-old agricultural engineer; report- edly arrested in 1981 in Dar'a for suspected membership in prohibited Arab Socialist Unity Party, a Nasserite political group; reportedly held in Dar'a Prison MUHAMMAD NABIL SALIM: released December 14, 1991; 52-year-old former professor of soil mechanics and head of Department of Civil Engi- neering, Aleppo University; arrested in March 1980 in Aleppo following 1- day national strike; detained at 'Adra Civil Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International MAMOUN AL-SAWAH: released December 12, 1991; 59-year-old elec- trical engineer; former manager of Swiss company in Damascus; arrested on April 21, 1980, in Damascus following 1-day national strike; held in 'Adra Civil Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International FADIA SHALISH: released November 1991; 35-year-old mechanical en- gineer from Tartus; arrested on February 15, 1988, for suspected involve- ment in prohibited Party for Communist Action; held in Douma Prison ABDELRAZZAK SHEIKH SOLEIMAN: released 1991; 35-year-old me- chanical engineer; arrested in 1988 for suspected involvement in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison

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64 SCIENTISTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN SYRIA HEALTH PROFESSIONALS (16) 'ADEL 'ABBUD: released December 1991; 34-year-old veterinarian from Deir al-Zor; arrested February 25, 1989, for suspected involvement in pro- hibited Communist Party Political Bureau; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International; reportedly held in Saidnaya Prison YASER AL-ALI: released December 14, 1991; 33-years-old; from Jableh; reportedly arrested in July 1983 for suspected membership in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; reportedly held in 'Adra Civil Prison NOUR AL-DIN AL-ATASSI: released August 28, 1992; 64-year-old sur- geon and former prime minister of Syria; arrested on November 13, 1970, together with other government officials following coup that brought Assad to power; held in al-Mezze Military Prison for 22 years; suffered heart attack in April 1992 and was hospitalized; was allowed to leave Syria fol- lowing his release and died of cancer at American Hospital in Paris on December 3, 1992 SAMIR Al-'ASHUR Al-'ASKARI: released 1991; 31-year-old dermatol- ogy intern; reportedly arrested in 1983 for suspected membership in prohib- ited Party for Communist Action; believed to have been held in Aleppo prison MUHAMMAD NIZAR AL-DAQR: released 1991; former professor of dermatology; arrested in 1980 in Damascus following 1-day national strike; reportedly held in Tadmur Military Prison MAHMOUD AL-ERIAN: released December 14, 1991; 42-year-old gyne- cologist; arrested in September 1986 in Idlib; accused of belonging to pro- hibited "Nasserite organization of Syria"; detained in Saidnaya Prison; re- portedly nearly paralyzed and in need of surgery during period in detention AYHAM HADDAD: released December 1991; 30-year-old general practi- tioner; arrested in 1988 in Damascus for suspected membership in prohib- ited Democratic Ba'ath Party; reportedly tortured; detained in 'Adra Civil Prison GHASSAN MUSTAFA AL-HAJ: released December 1991; arrested in 1980 in Idlib following 1-day national strike MUWAFFAQ HILALI: released December 1991; 34-years-old; arrested on September 14, 1987, in Saidnaya for suspected membership in prohib- ited Communist Party Political Bureau; reportedly tortured; adopted as pris- oner of conscience by Amnesty International MAHMUD AL-JAZIRI: released fall 1991; former professor of surgery at

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APPENDIXES 65 Faculty of Medicine, Damascus University; arrested in 1980 following 1- day national strike BASSAM KHATTAB: released December 1991; 40-years-old; from Tibat al-Imam; arrested in May 1983 for suspected membership in prohibited Communist Party Political Bureau; reportedly tortured and detained in Saidnaya Prison; adopted as prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International HAROUN AL-KHAYR: released December 1991; 44-year-old former as- sistant at Faculty of Dentistry, Tishrin University; arrested in 1987 GEORGES NAKHLEH: released December 17, 1991; 42-years-old; ar- rested in July 1983 in Yabrud for suspected involvement in prohibited Com- munist Party Political Bureau; held at Saidnaya Prison 'AYISHA QUTAISH: released 1988 or 1991; female general practitioner; arrested in 1980 in Aleppo following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-AZIZ AL-SALIH: released December 1991; arrested in 1980 in Deir al-Zor following 1-day national strike 'ABD AL-RA'UF 'UBAID: released 1991; former professor of neurology at Faculty of Medicine, University of Aleppo; arrested in 1980 in Idlib

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