elements in a cycle, including anthropogenic sources of environmental change, earth system processes, the impacts of environmental change on social systems, and human responses to actual or anticipated impacts. To date, the USGCRP has emphasized the element of earth system processes in this cycle. Although this research remains crucial, the goal of end-to-end assessment calls for equally serious attention to the other elements of the cycle as well as a new emphasis on the feedback loops linking these elements. We believe that the research programs recommended here will contribute significantly to achieving this goal over the next 5 to 10 years.

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