Transition from research to battery and fuel cell applications. Particular attention should be paid to the process of achieving a transition from the fundamental understanding of processes, factors limiting performance, new materials, and energy storage and conversion devices evolving from the research laboratory to the development of systems that satisfy Navy requirements. Systems engineering activities would benefit from the development of a database on energy storage and conversion devices, performance characteristics and limitations, economic and environmental factors, and other parameters. Studies on trade-offs could then be performed to select the best options for a particular application. The methodology for performing such studies should be captured and continually updated along with the technical database itself to aid system planners and engineers in the design of devices that will satisfy Navy needs.