control requirements. Another approach is to extend the useful life of materials and fluids used in naval operations. Improved compatibility of materials, including reduction in wear, improved chemical stability, and corrosion protection, is another way to reduce the accumulation of spent materials.
Reuse and recycling of materials and devices. Opportunities for the reuse and rejuvenation of spent materials will be enhanced by new understanding of materials properties and processes. Chemical studies that focus on the recycling of fluids should be supported. Materials designed for reuse will both eliminate waste and reduce supply requirements. One example is the development of reliable, high energy density secondary batteries to replace primary batteries.
Pollution prevention. Basic studies should be directed toward generation of new chemical knowledge to meet the demand to prevent generation of pollutants. Some recent examples of changes in products and processes that have been driven by consideration for environmental improvement include the elimination of lead in gasoline, the use of water-based paints in industrial applications, and the required change over from refrigerant R12 to R134a. Prevention of pollution requires the development of alternative materials and changes in processes to allow the use of substitutes without a loss of function. Understanding of basic materials properties and new chemical synthesis techniques will enable the development of new low-polluting methods for coating and cleaning operations.