ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry

Panel on ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry Panel on ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-87-C-0018 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry Panel on ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry David W. McCall, Basking Ridge, New Jersey, Chair James J. Auborn, AT&T Bell Laboratories Robert A. Laudise, AT&T Bell Laboratories Dotsevi Y. Sogah, Cornell University Kathleen C. Taylor, General Motors Research Laboratory C. Grant Willson, University of Texas at Austin George M. Whitesides, Harvard University Navy Liaison Representative Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Consultant Sidney G. Reed, Ronald D. Taylor, Senior Program Officer

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ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry Naval Studies Board David R. Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group Alan Berman, Center for Naval Analyses Ruth M. Davis, Pymatuning Group, Inc. Seymour J. Deitchman, Institute for Defense Analyses John F. Egan, Lockheed Electronic Systems Group Ralph R. Goodman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Sherra E. Kerns, Vanderbilt University David W. McCall, Basking Ridge, New Jersey Irwin Mendelson, Singer Island, Florida George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation Alan Powell, University of Houston Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Robert L. Silverstein, Northrop Corporation Keith A. Smith, Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Richard H. Truly, Georgia Tech Research University J. Pace VanDevender, Sandia National Laboratories Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Navy Liaison Representatives Nat Kobitz, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Lee M. Hunt, Director Ronald D. Taylor, Associate Director Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Mary (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer

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ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Richard N. Zare, Stanford University, Chair Richard S. Nicholson, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair Stephen L. Adler, Institute for Advanced Study John A. Armstrong, IBM Corporation Sylvia T. Ceyer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Avner Friedman, University of Minnesota Susan L. Graham, University of California at Berkeley Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation Hans Mark, The University of Texas at Austin Claire E. Max, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Christopher F. McKee, University of California at Berkeley James W. Mitchell, AT&T Bell Laboratories Jerome Sacks, National Institute of Statistical Sciences A. Richard Seebass III, University of Colorado Leon T. Silver, California Institute of Technology Charles P. Slichter, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Alvin W. Trivelpiece, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry Preface The Panel on Office of Naval Research (ONR) Research Opportunities in Chemistry was established by the Naval Studies Board (NSB) at the request of the ONR. The NSB assists the ONR by reviewing ONR research programs in each of the fields of basic research for which ONR has responsibility, and identifying gaps in research coverage and new research opportunities. Naval operational requirements are considered, where known. The present report on opportunities in chemistry covers issues proposed by the panelists during a meeting held March 22-24, 1994, and the topics represent a consensus assessment of importance. The panel recognizes that the ONR program already supports work in many of the areas covered, but new sectors are proposed and inclusion implies priority emphasis for program evolution. Beginning with the excellent briefings by ONR and Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) representatives on current programs and critical Navy requirements, the panel focused on issues identifiable with the future of naval systems. This study builds on an earlier National Research Council report, Selected Opportunities for Chemical Research Related to the Navy Mission (An Interim Report) (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.), published in 1986. Many of the subjects covered in that report remain timely and pertinent to Navy responsibilities. The panel is indebted to ONR, NRL, and NSB personnel for strong professional input and many courtesies extended during the discussions, writing, and editing of this report. David W. McCall, Chair Panel on ONR Research Opportunities in Chemistry

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