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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings REFERENCES Abel, J. F., and F. T. Lee. 1973. Stress changes ahead of an advancing tunnel. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 10(6):673-697. Adams, F. D. 1912. An experimental contribution to the question of the depth of the zone of flow in the earth's crust. J. Geophys. 20:97-118. Annan, A. P., J. L. Davis, and D. Grendzmill. 1988. Radar sounding in potash mines, Saskatchewan, Canada. Geophysics 53(12):1556-1665. Bandis, S. C. and N. Barton. June 23-25, 1986. Failure modes of deep boreholes. Proc. 27th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., Tuscaloosa, AL 599-605. Bandis, S., A. C. Lunsden, and N. R. Barton. 1986. Experimental studies of scale effects on the shear behavior of rock joints. Publikasjon Institute 162: 1-21. Barton, M., R. Lien, and J. Lunde. 1974. Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel supports. Rock Mech. 6:189-236. Baumgärtner, J., J. Carvalho, and J. D. McLennan. August 1989. Fracturing deviated boreholes - an experimental approach. Int. Symp. on Rock Mech. at Great Depth, Pau. Bazant, Z.P. 1967. L'instabilité d'un milieu continu et la resistance en compression, Bulletin Rilem 35:99-112. Bellamy, C. J. 1960. Dept. Civil Engr. Res. Rept. R23, Univ. Sydney. Beus, M. J. June 21, 1973. Support load analysis at the Henderson Tunnel. U.S. Bureau of Mines (Spokane Research Center), Internal report 1-18. Beus, M. J. and M. P. 1984. Board. Field measurement of rock displacement and support pressure at 5,955-ft level during sinking of deep circular shaft in Northern Idaho. U.S. Bureau of Mines, RI 8909. Beus, M. J. and S. S. M. Chan. 1985. Structural design considerations for deep mine shafts, analysis of circular, rectangular, and elliptical openings. U.S. Bureau of Mines RI 8976:1-37.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Beus, M. J. and M. P. Board, M.P. 1989. In-situ measurements and preliminary design analysis for deep mine shafts in highly stressed rock. U.S. Bureau of Mines report of Investigations 9231:46. Beus, M. J. and S. M. Dar. June 19-22, 1989. Three-dimensional FEM Analysis to scale field measurements from deep mine accessways. Proc., 30th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., Morgantown, WV. Beydoun, W. B. and M. Mendes. 1989. Elastic ray-born L2 migration and inversion. Geophys. J. of the Roy. Astr. Soc. 97(1):151-160. Bieniawski, Z. T. 1974. Geomechanics classification of rock masses and its application in tunneling. Proc., 3rd Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech. 2A. 27. Biot, M. A. Feb. 1941. General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. J. Appl. Phys. 26:182-185. Biot, M. A. 1965. Mechanics of Incremental Deformation, Wiley, New York. Biot, M. A. 1966. Fundamental skin effect in anisotropic solid mechanics. Int. J. Solids and Structures 2:645-663. Biot, M. A. 1972. Non-linear effect of initial stress on crack propagation between similar and dissimilar orthotropic media. J. Quart. Appl. Math. 30:379-406. Bjarnasson, B., C. Ljunggren, and O. Stephansson. June 1988. New developments in hydrofracturing stress measurements at Luleȧ University of Technology. Proc., 2nd. Int. Workshop on Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements (HFSM'88), U. of Minnesota 1:113-140. Bosio, J. and L. H. Reiss. March 1988. Site selection remains key success in horizontal-well operations. Technology, OGJ. Bradley, W. B. Dec. 1979. Failure of inclined boreholes. Trans., ASME 101: 232-239. Bratli, R. K. and R. Risnes. April 1981. Stability and failure of sand arches. SPEJ. 236-248. Bregman, H. D., R. C. Bailey, and C. H. Chapman. 1989. Crosshole seismic tomography. Geophysics. 54(2):200-215. Bufler, H. 1965a. Die Druckstabilität recteckiger Verbundplatten. Ingenieur Archiv. 34:109-128. Bufler, H. 1965b. Axialsymmetrisches Ausknicken kreisförmiger Verbundplatten. Ingenieur Archiv 34:385-391. Burgert, W. and H. Lippmann. 1981. Models of translatory rock bursting in coal. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr. 8: 285-294. Burke, H. H. and K. S. Lane. 1960. Garrison Dam Test Tunnel. Trans., ASCE. 125(pt. 1, paper 3022):228-307.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Casarin, C. and R. J. Mair. 1981. The assessment of tunnel stability in clay by model tests. 6th Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering; Soft-Ground Tunneling; Failures and Displacements (Daniel Resendez, ed., et al.), A.A. Balkema, 33-44. Cheatham, J. B. and J. W. McEvar. Sept. 1964. Behavior of casing subjected to salt loading. J. Pet. Tech. 1070-1076. Cheatham, J. B. June 1984. Wellbore stability. J. Pet. Tech. 889-896. Cheng, C. H. and M. N. Toksoz. 1981. Elastic wave propagation in a full filled and synthetic seismophysics . Geophysics. 46:1046-1053. Cheng, C. H., Z. Jinzhong, and D. R. Burns. 1987. Effects of In-Situ permeability on the propagation of Stoneley (Tube) Waves in a borehole. Geophysics. 52(9):1279-1289. Cleary, M. P., J. J. Melvan, and C. A. Kohlhoas. Sept. 23-26, 1979. The effect of confirming stress and fluid propoerties on arch stability in unconsolidated sands. 54th Ann. SPE of AIME Tech. Conf., Las Vegas, SPE 9426. Coons, W. E., P. Gnirk, et al. July 1987. State-of-the-art report on potentially useful materials for sealing nuclear waste repositories. report by the Joint Technical Committee of the OECP/NEA Stripa Project . Corp, E. L. and R. C. Bates. 1967. Flexible liners for underground support. U.S. Bureau of Mines RI 6893. Corp, E. L. June 1-3, 1980. Rock mechanics research in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District. Proc., International Conference on Application of Rock Mechanics to Cut-and-Fill Mining, Lulea, Sweden; Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London. Crouch, M. C., III (editor). 1983. Oil and gas fields of Colorado — Nebraska and adjunct Areas. Rocky Mt. Assoc. Geol., Denver, CO. Cundall, P. A. 1976. Explicit, finite difference methods in geomechanics, in Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, C.S. Desai (ed.), American Soc. of Civil Engrs., New York 132-150. Cundall, P. A. 1983. User's Manual and report on NESSI, Version 1.145, Shell Res. KSEPL, Rijswijk, The Netherlands. Cundall, P. A. 1987. Distinct element models of rock and soil structure. Analytical and Computational Meth. in Engng. Rock Mech., E. Brown (ed.), Allen & Unwin, London 130-163. Cundall, P. A., T. Maini, J. Marti, P. J. Beresford, N. C. Last, and M. I. Asgian. 1978. Computer modeling of jointed rock masses. U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Technical report N-78-4. Cundall, P. A. and R. D. Hart. 1983. Development of generalized 2-D and 3-D district element programs for modeling jointed rock. U.S.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. Final Technical report. Cundall, P. A. and O. D. L. Strack. 1983. Modeling of microscopic mechanisms in granular material. Materials: New Models and Constitutive Relations, J. T. Jenkins and M. Satake (eds.). Proc., U.S.-Japan Seminar on New Models and Constitutive Relations in the Mechanics of Granular Material, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Daemen, J. J. K. and C. Fairhurst. 1971. Influence of failed rock properties on tunnel stability. Proc., 12th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech. 855-875. Daneshy, A. A. April 1973. A study of inclined hydraulic fractures. SPEJ 61-68. Daneshy, A. A. Oct. 1973. Experimental investigation of hydraulic fracturing through perforations . J. Pet. Tech.; Trans., AIME 255:1201-1206. Deiley, F. H. and T. C. Owens. Sept. 1969. Stress around a wellbore. Proc. 44th Ann. Fall Meeting, Denver, Colo, SPE 2557. de Montigny, O. and J. Combe. April 1988. Hole benefits, reservoir types, key to profit. OGJ. Detournay, E. 1983. Two-dimensional elastoplastic analysis of a deep cylindrical tunnel under non-hydrostatic loading. PhD thesis, U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 1-133. Detournay, E. and J. C. Roegiers. 1986. Discussion on `Wellbore Breakouts and In-Situ Stress' by M. D. Zoback, D. Moos, L. Mastin and R. N. Anderson. J. Geophys. Res. 91:14161-14162. Detournay, E. and C. Fairhurst. 1987. Two-dimensional elastoplastic analysis of a long cylindrical cavity under non-hydrostatic loading. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abst. 24(4):197-211. Detournay, E. and A. H. D. Cheng. 1988. Poroelastic response of a borehole in a non-hydrostatic stress field . Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 25(3):171-182. Dhar, B. B., S. Ratan, D. K. Sharma, and P. M. Rao. 1981. Model study of fracture around underground excavations in weak rocks: in weak rock, soft, fractured, and weathered rock. Proc., Int. Symp. on Weak Rock 1(A.A. Balkema):267-271. Doris, J. F. and S. Nemat-Nasser. 1980. Instability of a layer on a half-space. J. Appl. Mech. 47:304-312. Drescher, A. and I. Vardoulakis. 1982. Geometric softening In triaxial tests on granular material. Géotechnique 32:291-303. Durelli, A. J., and V. Parks. 1962. Relationship of size and stress gradient to brittle failure stress . Proc., 4th U.S. National Cong. of Appl. Mech. 931-8.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Dutro, H. B. and G. M. Patrick. May 1982. Analysis of the straight creek tunnel pilot bore instumentation data . U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Fed. Hwy. Admin., report No. FHWA/RD-81/066, 1-122. Ekstrom, M. P., C. A. Dahan, Y. M. Chen, P. M. Lloyd, and D. J. Rossi. 1987. Formation imaging with microelectrical scanning arrays. Log Analyst 28(3):294-306. Ewy, R. T., N. G. W. Cook, and L. R. Myer. 1988a. Hollow cylinder tests for studying fracture around underground openings . Proc., 29th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., U. of Minn., Balkema, Rotterdam, 67-74. Ewy, R. T., L. R. Myer, and N. G. W. Cook 1988b. Observations of borehole elongation under axisymmetric stresses. Abstract No. T51E-08, EOS Trans. AGU V69 (1988b), 1454. Ewy, R. T. and N. G. W. Cook. 1989. Fracture processes around highly stressed boreholes. Proc., 12th Annual Energy-Sources Technology Conf. and Exhibition Drilling Symp., Houston, ASME, 63-70. Fairhurst, C. Feb. 1968. Method of determining In-Situ rock stresses at great depth. (TRI'68), Missouri River Div. Corps of Eng. Fahrenthold, E. P. and J. B. Cheatham, Jr. June 1986. An approximate rock stress field for steady flow into production casing. Trans., ASME 108: 116-119. Fjaer, E., J. T. Malmo, O. J. Lokberg, and R. M. Holt. Sept. 1987. Optical studies of cavity failure in weak sedimentary rocks. Proc., 6th ISRM Cong., Montreal, 887-891. Freudenthal, A. M. 1977. Stresses around spherical and cylindrical cavities in shear-dilatant elastic media. 18th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. Fuenkajorn, K. and J. J. K. Daemen. 1988. Borehole closure in salt. Proc., 29th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., U. of Minnesota, 191-198. Geertsma, J. Oct. 1978. Some rock-mechanical aspects of oil and gas well completion. Paper EUR 38 presented at European Offshore Conf. and Exhibition, London. Gelbke, C., F. Miranda, and G. Sattel. 1989. Results of seismic transmission tomography survey at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory. Log Analyst 30(4): 243-260. Gill, D. E. and B. Ladanyi. 1987. Time-dependent ground response curves for tunnel lining design. Proc., 6th ISRM Cong., Montreal, 917-921. Gnirk, P. F. Feb. 1972. The mechanical behavior of uncased wellbores situated in elastic/plastic media under hydrostatic stress. SPEJ, 49-59.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Goodman, R. E. and G. Shi. 1983. Geology and rock slope stability — application of the keyblock concept for rock slopes. Proc., 3rd Int. Conf. on Stability in Surface Mining, New York, 347-373. Gough, D. L and J. S. Bell. 1981. Stress orientation from oil well fractures in Alberta and Texas. Can. J. Earth Sci. 18:638-645. Green, A. G. and J. A. Mair. 1983 Subhorizontal fractures in a granite pluton — their detection and implications for radioactive waste disposal. Geophysics 48:1428-1448. Guenot, A. 1987. Contraintes and ruptures autour Des Forages Pétroliers. Proc., 6th ISRM Cong., Montreal 1:109-118. Guenot, A. and F. J. Santarelli, F.J. June 1988. Borehole stability: a new challenge for an old problem. Proc., 29th U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 453-460. Guenot, A. April 1989. Borehole breakout and stress field in practice for a petroleum engineer . Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Gumusoglu, M. C., J. W. Bray, and J. O. Watson, J.O. Sept. 1987. Analysis of underground excavations incorporating the strain softening of rock masses. Proc., 6th ISRM Cong., Montreal 2:923-928. Haimson, B. C. 1968. Hydraulic fracturing in porous-permeable material. J. Pet. Tech. 20 1002. Haimson, B. C. and J. N. Edl. 1972. Hydraulic fracturing of deep wells. SPE 4061. Haimson, B. C. and C. Fairhurst. July 1969. Hydraulic fracturing in porous-ermeable materials. J. Pet. Tech., 811-817. Haimson, B. C. and C. G. Herrick. 1986. Borehole breakouts — a new tool for estimating In-Situ stress? Proc., Int. Symp. on Rock Stress and Rock Measurements, Stockholm, A.A. Balkema, 271-278. Haimson, B. C. and C. G. Herrick, C.G. 1989. Borehole breakouts and In-Situ stress. Proc., 12th Annual Energy-Sources Technology Conf. & Exhibition Drilling Symp., Houston, ASME, New York, 17-22. Hardin, E. L., C. H. Cheng, F. L. Paillet, and J. D. Mendelson. 1987. Fracture characterizations by means of attentuation and generation of tube waves in fractured crystalline rock at mirror lake, New Hampshire . J. Geophys. Res. 92. Hawkins, W. L., R. D. Oliver, and M. J. Lavelle, M.J. 1989. Borehole inspection system for large diameter boreholes. Log Analyst 30:26-30. Hearst, J. R. and P. H. Nelson. 1985. Well Logging for Physical Properties, McGraw Hill, New York, 570 pp. Heuzé, F. E. 1980. March 1980. Scale effects in the determination of rock mass strength and deformability . Rock Mech. 12(3-4):167-192.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Hill, R. 1958. General theory of uniqueness and stability in elastic-plastic solids . J. Mech. Phys. Solids 10:1-16. Hobbs, B. E. 1962. Structural analysis of a small area in the wagonga beds at Narooma, N.S.W. Geol. Soc. Australia, J.V.9, 1:71-86. Hobbs, D. W. 1966. The strength of coal under biaxial compression. Colliery Eng. 39:285-290. Hocking, G., G. G. W. Mustoe, and J. R. Williams. 1985. Validation of the CICE Discrete Element Code for ice ridge up and ice ridge cone interaction. ARCTIC '85 Conf. ASCE, San Francisco. Hoek, E. 1964. Rock fracture around mining excavations. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Strata Control and Rock Mechanics, Columbia U., 334-348. Hoek, E. and E. T. Brown. 1980. Underground Excavations in Rock, Inst. Min. Metal., London. Horii, H. and S. Nemat-Nasser. 1982. Compression-induced non-planar crack extension with application to splitting, exfoliation, and rockburst. J. Geophys. Res. 87(B8):6805-6821. Horii, H. and S. Nemat-Nasser. 1988. Dynamic response of crystalline solids with microcavities. J. of Applied Physics 64(2):856-863. Hoskins, E. R. 1969. The failure of thick-walled cylinders of isotropic rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 6:99-125. Hsiao, C. Sept 27-30, 1987. A study of horizontal wellbore failure. 62nd Ann. Tech. Conf. and Exhibition, SPE 16927, Dallas. Ingraffea, A. R. 1987. Theory of crack initiation and propagation in rock. Fracture Mechanics of Rock, B. K. Atkinson (ed.), Academic Press, Toronto, 71-109. Jaeger and Hoskins. 1986. Stresses and failure in rings of rock loaded in diametral tension or compression, British J. of Applied Physics, 17 685. Johnson, J. C. and M. E. Poad. June 19-22, 1989. Premining stability of a shaft pillar at the homestake mine. Proc., U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech., Morgantown, WV. Kaiser, P. K., A. Guenot, and N. R. Morgenstern. 1985. Deformation of small tunnels — part IV. behavior during failure. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 22:141-152. Kaiser, P. K. and N. R. Morgenstern. 1981. Phenomenological model for rock with time-dependent strength. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 18(2):153-165. Kaiser, P. K. and N. R. Morgenstern. 1982. Time-in-dependent and time-dependent deformation of small tunnels; III, pre-failure behavior. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 19(6):307-324.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Kanda, H., N. Setaka, T. Oshawa, and D. Fukunaga. 1981. Asymmetries of the crystal shapes of synthetic diamonds. J. of Crystal Growth 51(3):629-631. Karwoski, W. J. 1973. Deep shaft design parameters. Proc., Pacific Northwest Metals and Minerals Conf., AIME, Coeur d`Alene, ID, 1-30. Keer, L. M. O., S. Nemat-Nasser, and A. Oranratnachai. 1982. Surface instability and splitting in compressed brittle elastic solids containing crack arrays. J. Appl. Mech. 49:761-767. Kelsall, P. C., J. B. Case, W. E. Coons, R. D. Ellison, D. Meyer, and J. W. Nelson. 1988. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in basalt . Contract report prepared for Department of Energy, D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM, 1-91. Kennedy, and Lindberg. 1978. Model testing for plastic response of lined tunnels. J. Eng. Mech. Div. ASCE 104(2):399-420. Kitsunezaki, C. 1980. A new method for shear wave logging. Geophysics 39(5):1489-1506. Klein, R. J. and M. R. McLean. Jan. 1988. Application of wellbore stability analysis to a horizontal United Kingdom Land Well. Conf. on Applied Rock Eng. (CARE'88), U. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 117-125. Komar, C. A. and K. H. Frohne. 1973. Analysis of factors influencing fracture initiation and orientation in oil reservoir sandstone. U.S. Bureau of Mines (1973), RI 7813, 22p. Kuriyagawa, M., H. Kobayashi, I. Matsuanga, T. Yamaguchi, T., and K. Hibiya. June 1988. Application of hydraulic fracturing to three-dimensional In-Situ stress measurements. Proc., 2nd Int. Workshop on Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements (HFSM'88), U. of Minnesota, 307-340. Labuz, J. F., H. S. Chang, C. H. Dawding, and S. P. Shah. 1988. Parametric study of acoustic emission locator using only four sensors . Rock Mech. and Rock Eng. 21(2):139-148. Ladanyi, B. 1980. Direct determination of ground pressure on tunnel lining in a nonlinear viscoelastic rock. Proc., 13th Can. Rock Mech. Symp., Ecole Polytech., Montreal. Lajtai, E. Z., and V. N. Lajtai. 1974. The Collapse of Cavities. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 12(4):81-86. Laubach, S. E., R. W. Baumgärtner, E. R. Monson, E. Hunt, and K. J. Meador. 1988. Fracture detection in low-permeability reservoir sandstone: a comparison of borehole televiewer and formation microscanner logs to core. 63rd Annual SPE Tech. Conf. and Exhibition, Houston, TX, 129-139.

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Stability, Failure, and Measurements of Boreholes and Other Circular Openings Leeman, E. R. 1960. The measurement of the stress in the ground surrounding mining excavation . Papers and Discussions, 1958-59, pp. 3331-356, Assoc. of Mine Managers of S. Afr., The Tra. and Arr. Free State Chamber of Mining, South Africa, 1960. Li, Y. 1986. Study of fracturing a deviated well. Int. report, U. of Texas, Austin. Lin, D. and C. Fairhurst. 1988. Static analysis of the stability of three-dimensional block systems around excavations in rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 25:139-147. Lippmann, H. 1978. The mechanics of translatory rock bursting. Advances in Analysis of Geotechnical Instabilities (Waterloo) SM Study 13:25-63. Lippmann, H. 1983. The intersected Mohr-Coulomb layer, compressed under frictional conditions between elastic half-spaces. Ingenieur-Archiv, 53:101-115. Ljunggren, C., B. Amadei, and O. Stephansson. Jan. 1988. Use of the Hoek and Brown failure criterion to determine In-Situ stress from hydraulic fracturing measurements. Proc., Conf. Appl. Rock Eng. (CARE'88), U. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 133-142. Lorig, L.J., Hart, R.D., Board, M.P., and Swan G. 1989. “Influence of Discontinuity Orientations and Strength on Cavability in a Confined Environment,” Proc, U.S. Symp. on Rock Mech. Majer, E. L., T. V. McEvilly, F. S. Eastwood, and L. R. Myer. 1988. Fracture detection using P-Wave and S-Wave vertical seismic profiling at the geysers. Geophysics 53(1):76-84. Mandel, J. 1965. Conditions de Stabilité et Postulat de Drucker. Rheology and Soil Mechanics, Springer, Berlin, 58-68. Martin, C. D. 1990. Characterizing In-Situ stress Domain AECL Underground Research Laboratory . Can. Geotech. J. 27:631-644. Mastin, L. G. 1984. The development of borehole breakouts in sandstone. Master's thesis, Stanford U., Stanford, CA, 118 pp. Maury, V. Sept. 1987. Observations, recherches et résultats récents sur les mécanismes de ruptures autour de galeries isolées. report of the ISRM-Commission on `Failure Mechanisms Around Underground Excavations,' Proc., 6th ISRM Cong., Montreal, G. Herget & S. Vongpraisal, eds., A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2:1119-1128. Maury, V. and J. M. Sauzay. 1987. Borehole stability: case histories, rock mechanics approach and results . Proc., SPE/IADC Conf., New Orleans, 16051 . McKinstry, B. A. Oct. 1983. Deepest single lift shaft in North America nears completion. Mining Eng., 1391-1396.

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