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REFERENCES Al-Awar, J., Chapanis, A., and Ford, W.R. 1981 Tutorials for the first time computer user. IEEE Transactions in Professional Communication. PC-24(1):30-i7. Bailey, J., Basili, V., Cannon, J. , Katz, E., Rruesi, E., Sheppard , S., and Zelkawitz , M. 1982 Monitoring an Ada Software Development Project. Ada Letters 2(July-August):58-61. Baker, F.T. 1972 Chief progr~ere team management of production programming. IBM Sva tees Journal 11:56-73. Blesser, T., and Foley, J.D. 1982 Towards specifying and evaluating the human factor e of user-co~puter interface. Pp. 309-314 in Proceedings of the Human Factors of computing Systems. New Yorks Association of Computing Machinery. Boies, S.J. 1974 User behavior on an interactive computer system. IBM Systems Journal 13:2-18. Britton, E.~., Parker, R.A., and Parnas, D.L. 1981 A procedure for designing abstract interfaces for device interface modules. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Software Engineering. Orlando, Flas IEEE. Brooks, F.P. 1975 The Mythical Man Months Engineering. Reading, Mass.: : Essays on Software Addison-Wealey. Bullen, C.~., and Bennett, J.l`. 1983 Of f ice Workstation Use by Administrative Manager e and Profeselonale. IBM Research Report RJ 3890. 26
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27 Sullen, C.V., Bennett, J.L., and Carlson, E.D. 1982 A case study in off ice workstation use. IBM Sys tems Journal 21 ~ 3 ): 3 S 1-3 6 9 . Card, S.R., English, W.R., and Burr, B.J. 1978 Evaluation of mouse, rate-controlled isometr ic joystick, stop keys, and text keys for text selection on a CRT. Ergonomics 21: 601-631. Card, S., Moran, T., and Newell, A. 1980a Computer text-editing: an information processing analysis of a routine cognitive skill. Cognitive Psychology 12:32-74. 1980b The keystroke level model for user performance with interactive systems. Communications of the ACM 23:396-410. 1983 The Psychology of Human Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. Carroll, J.M., and Mack, R.L. 1982 Metaphor, computing systems and active learning. IBM Research Report RC 9636. Carroll, J.M., and Thomas, J.C. 1982 Metaphor and the cognitive representation of computing systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 12:107-116. Cook, T.D., and Campbell, D.~. 1979 Quasi-Exper imentation: Issues for Field Settings. McNally. Design and Analysis in Chicago: Rand deRleer, J., and Brown, J. S. 1983 Assumptions and ambiguities in mechanistic mental models. In D. Gentner and A.S. Stevens, eds., Mental Models. Hilledale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. A qualitative physics based on confluences. In press B. Moore and J. Bobbs, eds., Formal Models of the Commnn-Sense World. - Norwood, N.B. : Ablex. Douglas, S.A., and Moran, T.P. 1983 Learning text editing semantics by analogy. CHI-83. Pp. 207-211 in Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. Ericsson, K.A. , and Simon, B.A. 1980 Verbal reports as data. 3: 215-251. Psychological Rev few Felker, D. C., ed . 1980 Document Design: A Review of the Relevant Research . Amer lean Institute for Research . Technical Repor t 75002-4/80, Washington, D. C.
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28 Flanagan, John C. 1954 Critical incident technique. Bulletin 51:327-358. Ford, William R. 1981 Natural Language Processing by Computer--A New Approach. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University. Gentner, D., and Stevens, A.L. eds. 1983 Mental Models. Hilledale, N.J.: , Erlbaum. Good, M. 1982 An ease of use evaluation of an integrated document processing system. CHI 82. Pp. 142-147 in Proceedings of Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. Goodwin, N.C. 1982 Effect of interface design on usability of message handling systems. Pp. 69-i3 in Proceedings of the Human Factors Society. 26th annual meeting, Seattle, Wash. Gould, J.D., and Boies, S.J. 1978 Writing, dictating, and speaking letters. Science 201:1145-1147. 1983 Buman factors challenges in creating a principal support systee--the speech filing approach. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems 1 ( 4 ): 273-298 . 1984 Speech filing--an office system for principals. IBM System Journal 23(1~:65-81. Gould, J.D., and Lewis, C. 1985 Designing for usability of key principles and what designer e think. Communications of the Anal 28:300-311. New York: Association of Computing Machinery . Gould, J.D., Conti, John, and Bovanyacz, Todd 1983 Composing letters with a simulated listening typewriter. Communications of the ACH 26:295-308. Hanau, P.R., and Lenorovitz, D.R. 1980 A prototyping and simulation approach to interactive computer system design. Pp. 23-25 in Proceedings of the 17th Design Automation . Conference, Minneapolis, Minn. Psychological
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29 Hartley, C., Brecht, M., Pagersy, P., Weeks, G., Chapanis, A., and Hoecker, O. 1977 Subjective estimates of work tasks by office wor ker s . Journal of Occupational Psychology 50:23-36. Hartson, H.R., Johnson, D.H., and Ehrich, R.W. 1984 A human-computer dialogue management system. Pp. 57-61 in Proceedings of INTERACT '84, London. Amsterdam: Publications. Elsevier Science Hayes, P., Ball, E., and Reddy, R. 1981 Breaking the man-machine communication barrier Computer 14(3):19-30. Heninger, R. L. 1980 Specifying software requirements for complex systems: new techniques and their application. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. SE-6(1):2-13. Hoecker, D.G., and Pew, R.W. 1980 User Input to the Design and Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Service Delivery. Report l43S8. Cambridge, Mass.: Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. Jacob, R.J.R. 1983 Using formal specifications in the design of the human-computer interface. Communications of the Association of Computing Machinery . 26(4):259-270. 3Ohnson-Laird, A. 1982 Most software more complicated than needed. Software News 2(4):47. Relley, J.F. 1983 Natural Language and Computers: Six Empirical Steps for Writing an Easy-to-Use-Computer Application. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University. Kelley, J.F., and Chapanis, A. 1982 How professional persons keep their calendars: implications for computerization. Journal of Occupational PsYcholoqY 5S:241-2S6. Kieras, D.E., and Polson, P.A. 1983 A generalized transition network representation for interactive systems. CEI-83. Pp. 103-106 in Proceedings of the Conference on Buman Factors in Computing Systems. New York: Association of Computing Machinery.
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31 Miller, 13.C., and Pew, P<.W. 1981 Exploiting user involvement In interactive system development. Pp. 401-405 in Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, Calif: Human Factors Society. Moran, T. P. 1983 Getting into a system: external-internal task mapping analysis. CHI-83. Pp. 45-49 in Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors . . . in Computing Systems. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. Olson, G.M., Duffy, S.A., and Mack, R.L. 1984 Thinking~out-loud as a method for studying real-time comprehension processes. Pp. 253-286 in D.E. Rieras and M.A. Just, eds., New Methods in Reading Comprehension. Hilladale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., and Tannenbaum, P.~. 1957 The Measurement of Meaning. Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Parks, M. 1983 Productivity tools enable users to obtain better (not more) code. Software News 3(2) :22-23. Pew, R.W., Rollins, A.M., and Williams, G.A. 197 9 Gener to Minicomputer Dialogue Specif ication: An Alternative to Dialogue Specialists. Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc ., Cambr idge , - ~s . Polson , P., and Rieras, D. E. 1985 A quantitative model of learning and performance of text editing knowledge. CHI-85 In ~~q on Buman Factors in Computing Systems. New York: Ad_ hinery (in press. 3 Ramsey, H. R. 1974 Plans: human factors in the design of a . computer programming language. Pp. 39-41 in Proceedings of the Buman Factors Society Annual . . Meeting. Santa Monica, Calif.: Human Factors Society. Ramsey, H.R., Atwood, M.E., and Willoughby, J.R. 1979 Paper simulation techniques in user require- ments analysis for interactive computer systems. Pp. 64-68 in Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting. Human Factors Society. Santa Monica, Calif.:
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32 Reisner, P. 1977 Use of psychological experimentation as an aid to development of a query language. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-3(3):218-229. 1981a Formal grammar and human factors design of an interactive graphics system. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-7(2):229-240. 1981b Buman factors of data-base query languages: survey and assesament. Computing Surveys 13:13-31. Formal grammar as a tool for analyz ing ease of use: some fundamental concepts . In J. Thomas and M. Schneider, eds., Human Factors in Computer Systems. 1984 Norwood, N. B.: Ablex . Feigner, P., Boyce, R.F., and Chamberlain, D.D. 1975 Human factors evaluation of two data base query languages: SQUARE and SEQUEL. Pp. 447-452 in Proceedings of the National Computer Conference. Arlington, Va.: American Federation of Information Processing Societies Press. Reitman, J.S., Whitten, W.8.,II, and Gruenenfelder, T.M. 1985 A general user interface for entering and changing tree structures, nested menus, and decision trees. In Proceedings of NYU - ~ Norwocd, Symposium on Oser Interface Design. N.~.s Ablex. Rice, Ronald B. 1982 Human Communication Networking in a Telecon- ferencing Environment. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Computer & fences, Stanford University. Roberts, Teresa L., and Moran, Thomss P. 1983 The evaluation of text editors: methodology and empirical results. Communications of the ACM 26:265-283. Rosson, Mary Beth 1983 Patterns of experience in text editing. CHI-83. Pp. 171-175 in Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New Yorks Association of Computing Machinery. 1984 Effects of experience on learning, using, and evaluating ~ text editor. Buman Factors 26:463-475.
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33 Sheppard , S . B. ., and Rruesi , E ~ 1981 The effects of the symbology and spatial arrangement of software specifications in a coding task. General Electric Company Information Systems Programs Report TR-81-388200-3. Arlington, Va.: General Electric. Shneiderman, B. 1982 Systems message design: guidelines and experimental results. In A. Badre and B. Scheiderman, eds., 5~ ~~ ~~ly~ computer Interaction. Norwood, N.H.: Ablex. : Smith, S.L. 1982 User-system interface design for computer-based information systems. Mitre Corporation Report ESD-TR-82-132. Bedford, Mass. : Mitre Corporation. Smith, S.L., and Mosier, J.N. 1984 Design guidelines for user-system interface software. Mitre Corporation Report ESD-TR-84-190. Bedford, Mass .: Mitre Corporation. Stallman, R.M. 1980 EMACS Manual for ITS users. AI Lab Memo 554. Masachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambr idge, Mass . Sullivan, M.A., and Chapanis, A. 1983 Human factoring: a text editor manual. Behaviour and Information Technology 2:113-125. Teitelman, W. 1972 Do what I mean: the programm~r's assistant. Computers and Automation 21~4)8-11. Thomas, J.C., and Gould , J. D. 1975 A psychological study of query by example. In Proceedings of the National Computer Conference. Arlington, Va.: American Federation of Information Processing Societies Press ~ Van Cott, H., and Rinkade, R.G., eds. 1972 Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design . Prepared by the American Institutes for Research for the U.S. Department of Defense. Available from the O.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense .
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34 Wasserman, Anthony I. 1982 The user software engineering methodology: an overview. Pp. 591-628 in A.A. Verrijn-Stuart, ea., Information System Design Methodologies. Amsterdam: North Holland Press. Wasserman, Anthony I., and Shewmake, David T. 1982 Rapid prototyping of interactive information systems. Software Engineering Notes 7(S):171-180. Whiteside, J., Archer, N., Wixon, D., Good, M. 1982 How do people really use text editors? Pp. 29-40 in Proceedings of the SIGOA Conference on Office Information Systems, Philadelphia. Wienberg, G.M., and Friedman, D.P. 1984 Reviews, walk-throughs, and inspections. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-10(1). Williges, R.C., and Williges, B.H. 1982 Modeling the human operator in computer based data entry. Human Factors 24:285-299. Wixon, D.R., Whiteside, J.A., Good, M.D., and Jones, J.R. 1983 Building a user defined interface. CEI-83. Pp. 24-27 in proceeding of the Conference on Buman Factors in Computing Systems. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. Woodeon, W.E., and Conquer, D.W. 1966 Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers. 2nd ed. 8erkeleys University of California Press. Yunten, T., and Bar tson, B.R. 1984 A Supervisory Methodology and Notation (SUPBmAN). In B.R. Bar tson, ed, Advances In Human~puter Interaction. Nor wood , N. B.: Ablex. .
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UnC1aSS i f He d SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF AS FACE who O - e Entered REPORT WCIIMENTATION PAGE I READ ~SSRUCS ONS ~ R5~0~T NURSE. i~_G;;~ _ _ . 4. T1TL.t (and Subtl~le) 5 TY.IE OF REPLAY a .81tIOD COVEREC} Methods for Designing Software to Fit Human Needs Technical Report and Capabilities: Proceedings of the Workshop on So f tware Human Facto rs ~ ~c~ron-'nc ORG R£.ORY NUDER. ~ AUTt40~(~) · CoNTRACS OR CRAldY NUI48£Itt ) Nancy S. Anderson and Judith Reitman Olson, eds. N00014-85-(~0093 · ~C.PoRI4lNC ORGANIZATION NAl4E ANO &ODRESS 10 .ROI;RA~ SAC - ANT .,IOJECS. BASIC Committee on Human Factors AREA ~ WORK UNIT NUMBS National Research Council Work Unit No. NR196-167 Washington, D. C. 20418 11 CONTROLLING OFFICE NA - E AND ADDRESS 12 Report C}AT. Engineering Psychology Program Slav 1985 Of fice of Naomi research ', NURSER or PACES Arlington, VA 72217 ,4 MoNItORl?dC AGENCY Bilge ~ AOD.CSStit dl! ran tom ControiJlnd Otiice) 15 l£CuRlT~r CLASS. (O' tote ~o,iJ . Unclassif fed 15e D£C~aSSIFICAYION'OOWNCIlAOING SCHEDULE 1~ OISYRI~UTION STAT£~ENT (ol Isle lloporI) Approved for Public Release: Distribution Unlimited 17 OISY.l.UTlON STAT£ - tub (at to—abel,ac ~ _ `n Al—cl' IO, 1, dittos - t tom it_) 18 sU..L£~ENtAltY .407865 The Committee on Human Factors is sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research. information systems Comm tree on Human Factors computer software design software human factors methods human-computer interaction software design methods 20. react (cable ~ ~~ .~ - I! ~c-~ ~ I~It~ ~ u-c. a) Computer software is usually developed with little or no user input into the design process frequently resulting in sophisticated computer programs that are dif ficult to use or require extensive training programs. The workshop was convened to identify and describe methods that software designers can employ that incorporate the user into the design team. The result is more ef fective use and evaluation of the software programs, improved manuals, and reduced training time. DO 1 `~ 7' 1473 eD'riou on 1 non as 18 O~LEY S 'N 0102 Lye. 014. 6601 Unc1 assified ·ccu - ~, ma 0~ a,. .~. - ~ Dot- Itch
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Representative terms from entire chapter: