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Technical Issues in NOAA's Nautical Chart Program Committee on Assessment of Technical Issues in the Automated Nautical Chart System (ANCS II) Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Mapping Science Committee Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also spon- sors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public? and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The program described in this report is supported by interagency cooperative agreement No. DTMA91-94-G-00003 between the Maritime Administration of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion and the National Academy of Sciences. Limited copies are available from: Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF TECHNICAL ISSUES IN THE AUTOMATED NAUTICAL CHART SYSTEM (ANCS II) KENNETH I. DAUGHERTY (chair), E-Systems, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JERRY A. ASPLAND, ARCO Marine, Inc. (retired), Long Beach, California G. ROSS DOUGLAS, Canadian Hydrographic Service (retired), Nepean, Ontario JAMES F. ELLIS, Boat Owners Association of the United States, Alexandria, . . . Virginia DAVID J. GOEHLER, Jeppesen Sanderson, Englewood, Colorado HAUKE KITE-POWELL, Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DUANE R. NIEMEYER, ESRI, Redlands, California SUZANNE L.K. ROUNTREE, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico K. STUART SHEA, TASC, Reston, Virginia Staff SUSAN GARBINI, Project Officer THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Officer MARVIN WEEKS, Administrative Assistant Federal Agency Liaisons DONALD PRYOR, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JAMES R. JANCAITIS, National Mapping Division, U.S. Geological Survey KEITH LITTLEFIELD, Defense Mapping Agency FRANK PARKER, U.S. Coast Guard . . .

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MARINE BOARD RICHARD J. SEYMOUR (chairJ, Texas A&M University, College Station, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California BERNARD J. ABRAHAMSS ON, University of Wisconsin, Superior JERRY A. ASPLAND, ARCO Marine, Inc. (retired), Long Beach, California ANNE D. AYLWARD, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts MARK Y. BERMAN, Amoco Corporation, Houston, Texas BROCK B. BERNSTEIN, EcoAnalysis, Ojai, California JOHN W. BOYLSTON, Argent Marine Operations, Inc., Solomons, Maryland SARAH CHASIS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., New York, New York CHRYSSOSTOMOS CHRYSSOSTOMIDIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BILIANA CICIN-SAIN, University of Delaware, Newark JAMES M. COLEMAN, NAE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge BILLY L. EDGE, Texas A&M University, College Station MARTHA GRABOWSKI, LeMoyne College and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Cazenovia, New York M. ELISABETH PATE-CORNELL, NAE, Stanford University, Stanford, California DONALD W. PRITCHARD, NAE, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Severna Park, Maryland STEPHANIE R. THORNTON, E1 Cerrito, California KARL K. TUREKIAN, NAS, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut ROD VULOVIC, Sea-Land Service, Inc., Elizabeth, New Jersey E.G. "SKIP" WARD, Shell Offshore, Inc., Houston, Texas ALAN G. YOUNG, Fugro-McClelland BV, Houston, Texas Staff CHARLES A. BOOKMAN, Director DONALD W. PERKINS, Associate Director DORIS C. HOLMES, Staff Associate ~v

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MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE LARRY J. SUGARBAKER (chair', Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia LAWRENCE F. AYERS (vice chairJ, Intergraph Corporation, Reston, Virginia HUGH N. ARCHER, Kentucky River Authority, Frankfort WILLIAM M. BROWN, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio BARBARA P. BUTTENFIELD, University of Colorado, Boulder MICHAEL W. DOBSON, Rand McNally and Company, Skokie, Illinois FREDERICK J. DOYLE, U.S. Geological Survey (retired), McLean, Virginia MICHAEL J. FOLK, University of Illinois, Urbana LEE C. GERHARD, Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California, Santa Barbara STANLEY K. HONEY, The News Corporation, Ltd., Los Angeles, California TERRENCE J. KEATING, Lucerne International, Bangor, Maine MICHAEL D. MARVIN, MapInfo Corporation, Troy, New York SARA L. MCLAFFERTY, Hunter College, New York, New York KAREN C. SIDERELIS, North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Raleigh ROBERT TUFTS, TASC, Reston, Virginia NANCY VON MEYER, Fairview Industries, Middleton, Wisconsin Staff THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Senior Staff Officer JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant v

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