Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing

Panel on Neutrino Astrophysics

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing Panel on Neutrino Astrophysics Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-93ER40810 and by the Basic Science Fund of the National Academy of Sciences, whose contributors include the AT&T Foundation, Atlantic Richfield Foundation, BP America, Dow Chemical Company, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., IBM Corporation, Merck and Company, Inc., Monsanto Company, and Shell Oil Companies Foundation. Additional copies of this report are available from: Board on Physics and Astronomy HA 562 National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing PANEL ON NEUTRINO ASTROPHYSICS JOHN N. BAHCALL, Institute for Advanced Study, Chair KENNETH LANDE, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT E. LANOU, JR., Brown University JOHN LEARNED, University of Hawaii R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, Los Alamos National Laboratory LINCOLN WOLFENSTEIN, Carnegie Mellon University ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DAVID N. SCHRAMM, University of Chicago, Chair ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Vice-Chair LLOYD ARMSTRONG, JR., University of Southern California DAVID H. AUSTON, Rice University DAVID E. BALDWIN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center FRANK DRAKE, University of California, Santa Cruz HANS FRAUENFELDER, Los Alamos National Laboratory JEROME I. FRIEDMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARGARET GELLER, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University ALBERT NARATH, Sandia National Laboratories JOSEPH M. PROUD, GTE Corporation (retired) ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University JOHANNA STACHEL, State University of New York at Stony Brook DAVID WILKINSON, Princeton University SIDNEY WOLFF, National Optical Astronomy Observatories DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Senior Program Officer NATASHA A. CASEY, Program Assistant STEPHANIE Y. SMITH, Project Assistant

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Rutgers University KENNETH I. KELLERMAN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory HANS MARK, University of Texas at Austin THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota A. RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado LEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing Preface The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) is reassessing the areas of physics that were examined by the Physics Survey Committee in their report, Physics Through the 1990s (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1986). One of the eight volumes of the report, Gravitation, Cosmology, and Cosmic-Ray Physics, was the subject of a National Research Council program initiation meeting that I chaired in 1992. At that meeting, the need for reassessments in the areas of cosmology, neutrino astrophysics, and cosmic-ray physics was identified. The Panel on Neutrino Astrophysics, along with the Committee on Cosmic-Ray Physics and the Panel on Cosmology, is part of this updating effort. Because of the connection to astrophysics and astronomy, the BPA has coordinated with the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics in the conduct of this study. The panel is chaired by John Bahcall, who also chaired the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, whose report The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (National Academy Press, 1991) issued priorities for that field. The research briefing format is intended to provide advice to program managers and policy makers on the opportunities for scientific advances in a frontier field. As one can see, the field of neutrino astrophysics offers several promising avenues for fundamental discoveries. David Schramm Chair Board on Physics and Astronomy

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