References

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[2] J. N. Bahcall , Neutrino Astrophysics ( Cambridge University Press , Cambridge, England , 1989 ).

[3] R. Davis, Jr. , Frontiers of Neutrino Astrophysics , edited by Y. Suzuki and K. Nakamura ( Universal Academy Press, Inc. , 1993 ), p. 47 .

[4] K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 16 ( 1989 ).

[5] K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. D. 44, 2241 ( 1991 ).

[6] P. Anselmann et al. , Phys. Lett. B 285, 376 ( 1992 ).

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[8] A. I. Abazov et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3332 ( 1991 ).

[9] J. N. Abdurashitov et al. , Phys. Lett. B 328, 234 ( 1994 ); J. N. Abdurashitov et al. , Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics , Eilat, Israel , May 29-June 3, 1994 (to be published).

[10] H. A. Bethe and G. Brown , Sci. Am. 252, 60 ( 1985 ).

[11] K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 , 1490 ( 1987 ).

[12] R. M. Bionta et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1494 ( 1987 ).

[13] J. N. Bahcall , Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 300 ( 1964 ); R. Davis, Jr. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 303 ( 1964 ).

[14] V. Gribov and B. Pontecorvo , Phys. Lett. B 28, 493 ( 1969 ); S. M. Bilenky and B. Pontecorvo , Phys. Rep. 41, 225 ( 1978 ).

[15] L. Wolfenstein , Phys. Rev. D 17, 2369 ( 1978 ); Phys. Rev. D 20, 2634 ( 1979 ).

[16] S. P. Mikheyev and A. Yu. Smirnov , Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 42, 913 ( 1986 ); Nuovo Cimento 9C, 17 ( 1986 ).

[17] Tokyo Workshop on Techniques for the Study of Extremely High Energy Cosmic Rays , Tokyo, Japan , 27-30 September 1993 , edited by M. Nagano ( Tokyo , 1994 ).

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[19] J. N. Bahcall and M. H. Pinsonneault , Rev. Mod. Phys. 64, 885 ( 1992 ).

[20] J. N. Bahcall and H. A. Bethe , Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 18 ( 1990 ); J. N. Bahcall and H. A. Bethe , Phys. Rev. D. 47, 1298 ( 1993 ); M. Fukugita , Mod. Phys. Lett. A6, 645 ( 1991 ); S. Pakvasa in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on High Energy Physics , edited by K. K. Phua and Y. Yamaguchi ( Physical Society of Japan , Singapore ), Vol. 1 , p. 698 ( 1991 ); S. A. Bludman et al. , Phys. Rev. D 47, 220 ( 1993 ); V. Castellani et al. , Phys. Lett. B 324, 425 ( 1994 ); V. Berezinski Commun. Nucl. Part. Phys. , ( 1994 , in press).



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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing References [1] H.A. Bethe , Phys. Rev. 55, 434 ( 1939 ); G. Gamow , Phys. Rev. 53, 595 ( 1938 ); W. A. Fowler , Rev. Mod. Phys. 56, 149 ( 1984 ). [2] J. N. Bahcall , Neutrino Astrophysics ( Cambridge University Press , Cambridge, England , 1989 ). [3] R. Davis, Jr. , Frontiers of Neutrino Astrophysics , edited by Y. Suzuki and K. Nakamura ( Universal Academy Press, Inc. , 1993 ), p. 47 . [4] K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 16 ( 1989 ). [5] K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. D. 44, 2241 ( 1991 ). [6] P. Anselmann et al. , Phys. Lett. B 285, 376 ( 1992 ). [7] P. Anselmann , Phys. Lett. B 314, 445 ( 1993 ); P. Anselmann , Phys. Lett. B 327, 377 ( 1994 ). [8] A. I. Abazov et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3332 ( 1991 ). [9] J. N. Abdurashitov et al. , Phys. Lett. B 328, 234 ( 1994 ); J. N. Abdurashitov et al. , Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics , Eilat, Israel , May 29-June 3, 1994 (to be published). [10] H. A. Bethe and G. Brown , Sci. Am. 252, 60 ( 1985 ). [11] K. S. Hirata et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 , 1490 ( 1987 ). [12] R. M. Bionta et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1494 ( 1987 ). [13] J. N. Bahcall , Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 300 ( 1964 ); R. Davis, Jr. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 303 ( 1964 ). [14] V. Gribov and B. Pontecorvo , Phys. Lett. B 28, 493 ( 1969 ); S. M. Bilenky and B. Pontecorvo , Phys. Rep. 41, 225 ( 1978 ). [15] L. Wolfenstein , Phys. Rev. D 17, 2369 ( 1978 ); Phys. Rev. D 20, 2634 ( 1979 ). [16] S. P. Mikheyev and A. Yu. Smirnov , Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 42, 913 ( 1986 ); Nuovo Cimento 9C, 17 ( 1986 ). [17] Tokyo Workshop on Techniques for the Study of Extremely High Energy Cosmic Rays , Tokyo, Japan , 27-30 September 1993 , edited by M. Nagano ( Tokyo , 1994 ). [18] J. N. Bahcall , Phys. Lett. B 338, 276 ( 1994 ). [19] J. N. Bahcall and M. H. Pinsonneault , Rev. Mod. Phys. 64, 885 ( 1992 ). [20] J. N. Bahcall and H. A. Bethe , Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 18 ( 1990 ); J. N. Bahcall and H. A. Bethe , Phys. Rev. D. 47, 1298 ( 1993 ); M. Fukugita , Mod. Phys. Lett. A6, 645 ( 1991 ); S. Pakvasa in Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on High Energy Physics , edited by K. K. Phua and Y. Yamaguchi ( Physical Society of Japan , Singapore ), Vol. 1 , p. 698 ( 1991 ); S. A. Bludman et al. , Phys. Rev. D 47, 220 ( 1993 ); V. Castellani et al. , Phys. Lett. B 324, 425 ( 1994 ); V. Berezinski Commun. Nucl. Part. Phys. , ( 1994 , in press).

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing [21] V. A. Kuz'min , Sov. Phys. JETP (Engl. Transl.) 22, 1059 ( 1966 ). [22] J. N. Bahcall , B. T. Cleveland , R. Davis, Jr. , et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1351 ( 1978 ). [23] H. Chen , Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1534 ( ); G. Aardsma et al. , Phys. Lett. B 194, 321 ( 1987 ); G. Ewan et al. , Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Proposal SNO-87-12 ( 1987 ). [24] Y. Totsuka , in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Underground Physics Experiments , edited by K. Nakamura ( ICRR, University of Tokyo , 1990 ), p. 129 ; A. Suzuki , in Proceedings of the Workshop on Elementary-Particle Picture of the Universe , Tsukuba, Japan , 1987 , edited by M. Yoshimura , Y. Totsuka , and K. Nakamura ( KEK Report No. 87-1 , Tsukuba , 1987 ), p. 136 ; M. Takita , in Frontiers of Neutrino Astrophysics , edited by Y. Suzuki and K. Nakamura ( Universal Academy Press, Inc. , Tokyo , 1993 ), p. 135 . [25] G. Ranucci for the Borexino Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 32, 149 ( 1993 ); C. Arpasella et al. , in “Borexino at Gran Sasso: Proposal for a real-time detector for low energy solar neutrinos,” Vols. I and II , University of Milan , INFN report (unpublished) ; “Borexino-A Real Time Detector for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos,” proposal submitted to the NSF by Princeton University on behalf of the U.S. Borexino Collaboration, December, 1992 . [26] W. C. Haxton , Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 768 ( 1988 ). [27] J. P. Revol , Frontiers of Neutrino Astrophysics , edited by Y. Suzuki and K. Nakamura ( Universal Academy Press, Inc. , Tokyo , 1993 ), p. 167 ; J. N. Bahcall , Mo Baldo-Ceolin , D. Cline , and C. Rubbia , Phys. Lett. B 178, 324 ( 1986 ); C. Rubbia , CERN-EP Internal Report 77-8 ( 1977 ); The ICARUS Collaboration , ICARUS II , A Second-Generation Proton Decay Experiment and Neutrino Observatory at the Gran Sasso Laboratory , Volume I ( September 1993 ), Volume II ( May 1994 ). [28] R. E. Lanou , H. J. Maris , and G. M. Seidel , Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2498 ( 1987 ); S. R. Bandler et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2429 ( 1992 ); F. S. Porter , Ph.D. Thesis , Brown University ( 1994 , unpublished); S. R. Bandler et al. , J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 715 and 785 ( 1993 ). [29] J. Seguinot , T. Ypsilantis , and A. Zichichi , “A High Rate Solar Neutrino Detector with Energy Determination,” LPC92-31 , College de France , December 8, 1992. [30] P. D. Barnes et al. , J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 791 ( 1993 ); W. Seidel et al. , ibid., 797 ; A. Alessandrello et al. , ibid., 815 . [31] A. Alessandrello et al. , Report No. INFN/SAE-92/28 ( 1992 , unpublished). [32] R. S. Raghavan , P. Raghavan , and T. Kovacs , Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4295 ( 1993 ). [33] I. R. Barabanov , G. V. Domagatsky , and G. T. Zatsepin , , edited by J. Schneps , T. Kafka , W. A. Mann , and P. Nath (World Scientific, Singapore , 1989 ), p. 331. [34] A. Kopylov , Frontiers of Neutrino Astrophysics , edited by Y. Suzuki and K. Nakamura ( Universal Academy Press, Inc. , Tokyo , 1993 ), p. 157. [35] J. N. Bahcall , Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 251 ( 1969 ).

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing [36] J. G. Learned , “Detection of cosmic high energy neutrinos,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 346 ( 1994 ). [37] Y. Fukuda et al. , Phys. Lett. B 335, 237 ( 1994 ). [38] Proceedings of the Workshop on High Energy Neutrino Astronomy , University of Hawaii , March 1992 , edited by V. Stenger et al. (World Scientific, Singapore , 1992 ); S. Barwick et al. , Neutrino Astronomy on the 1 km2 scale, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 18, 225 ( 1992 ). [39] BAIKAL Collaboration , “The BAIKAL Neutrino Telescope NT-200,” Proceedings of the 1994 Venice Workshop , edited by M. Baldo-Ceollin ( Universita Degli Studi Di Padova , 1994 ). [40] P. K. Grieder et al. , “DUMAND Stage II Progress Report,” Proceedings of the NESTOR Workshop at Pylos , Greece , October 1993 , edited by L. K. Resvanis ( University of Athens , 1994 ). [41] T. Miller et al. , Proceedings of the 23rd International Cosmic Ray Conference , Calgary, Canada ( 1993 ); S. Tilav et al. , Proceedings of the 23rd International Cosmic Ray Conference , Calgary, Canada ( 1993 ). [42] Proceedings of the NESTOR Workshop at Pylos , Greece , October 1993 , edited by L. K. Resvanis , ( University of Athens , 1994 ). [43] J. G. Learned and S. Pakvasa , Astroparticle Physics (submitted, 1994 ). [44] See the Proceedings of the Venice Workshops on Neutrino Telescopes, edited by M. Baldo-Ceolin , Universita Degli Studi di Padova , Venice, Italy ( 1989-1994 ). [45] J. N. Bahcall , Phys. Rev. D 44, 1644 ( 1991 ).

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Neutrino Astrophysics: A Research Briefing FIGURE 1. Solar neutrino spectrum. The figure shows the energy spectrum of neutrinos predicted by the standard solar model [2]. The neutrino fluxes from continuum sources (like pp and 8B) are given in the units of number per cm2 per second per MeV at 1 astronomical unit. The line fluxes (pep and 7Be) are given in number per cm2 per second. The spectra from the pp chain are drawn with solid lines; the CNO spectra are drawn with dotted lines. The arrows at the top of the figure indicate the energy thresholds for the ongoing neutrino experiments. `