their relevant research communities, whereas the former are currently not, absent a program of human exploration.

Over the years the SSB has made many specific recommendations for scientific investigations in space, but none of the board's previous reports considered possible opportunities in the physical or biomedical sciences enabled by prolonged human space missions. For this report, CHEX considered ways in which human presence might enhance the accomplishment of previously recommended robotic scientific investigations and also considered what new investigations, consistent with the SSB's scientific strategies, might be enabled by a human exploration program. From this extended list, CHEX selected a number of specific examples that have valid scientific and technical reasons for being performed in conjunction with a Moon/Mars program and that would

  • Be enhanced or enabled by prolonged human space missions, and

  • Contribute in a major way to achieving the overall goals of space science.

The investigations in the physical sciences described in Chapter 3 meet these criteria. But, as is discussed below, some of those suggested in other reports do not. This observation raises a major concern of the scientific community—too often little or no competitive analysis and prioritization have been done, with respect to alternative modes or other science, to assess the merit of the proposed science for a Moon/Mars program.19

REFERENCES

1. President's Science Advisory Committee, Joint Space Panels, The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1967.

2. NASA, Beyond the Earth's Boundaries: Human Exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century , NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988.

3. Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program (the “Augustine report”), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1990.

4. NASA, Leadership and America's Future in Space, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987.

5. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991.

6. NASA, Report of the 90-day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989.

7. Committee on Space Policy, Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities (the “Stever report”), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988.

8. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, page 2.

9. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, pages 3-4.



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