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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space Committee on Human Exploration Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994
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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is President of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Cover: Mars mosaic image courtesy of Alfred McEwen of the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona. Lunar crescent image courtesy of Dennis di Cicco. Cover design by Penny Margolskee. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space COMMITTEE ON HUMAN EXPLORATION NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Astronautics Company, Chair RICHARD L. GARWIN, * IBM T.J. Watson Research Center LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories ELLIOTT C. LEVINTHAL, * Stanford University WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University ROBERT H. MOSER, University of New Mexico JOHN E. NAUGLE, † National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) GEORGE DRIVER NELSON, University of Washington SALLY K. RIDE, * University of California, San Diego MARCIA S. SMITH, † Congressional Research Service GERALD J. WASSERBURG, † California Institute of Technology Staff DAVID H. SMITH, Executive Secretary BOYCE N. AGNEW, Administrative Assistant * Former committee member who participated in writing this report. † Committee members added for third CHEX study who participated in writing this report.
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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space SPACE STUDIES BOARD LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Chair JOSEPH A. BURNS, Cornell University ANDREA K. DUPREE, * Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOHN A. DUTTON, Pennsylvania State University ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan LARRY ESPOSITO, * University of Colorado JAMES P. FERRIS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HERBERT FRIEDMAN, Naval Research Laboratory RICHARD GARWIN, * IBM T.J. Watson Research Center RICCARDO GIACCONI, * IBM T.J. Watson Research Center HAROLD J. GUY, University of California, San Diego NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Astronautics Company JAMES R. HOUCK, * Cornell University DAVID A. LANDGREBE, * Purdue University ROBERT A. LAUDISE, AT&T Bell Laboratories RICHARD S. LINDZEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas, Arlington WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University RICHARD K. MOORE, * University of Kansas ROBERT H. MOSER, * University of New Mexico NORMAN F. NESS, University of Delaware MARCIA NEUGEBAUER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University JEREMIAH P. OSTRIKER, Princeton University CARLE M. PIETERS, Brown University JUDITH PIPHER, University of Rochester MARK SETTLE, * ARCO Oil Company WILLIAM A. SIRIGNANO, University of California, Irvine JOHN W. TOWNSEND, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) FRED W. TUREK, Northwestern University ARTHUR B.C. WALKER JR., Stanford University MARC S. ALLEN, Director * Former member.
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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation (retired) SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology AVNER FRIEDMAN, University of Minnesota SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation HANS MARK, University of Texas, Austin CLAIRE E. MAX, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California, Berkeley JAMES W. MITCHELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences A. RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director
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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space This page in the original is blank.