Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

A Report Prepared by the

Committee on Aerospace Test Facilities for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1992



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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development CenterA Report Prepared by the Committee on Aerospace Test Facilities for the Arnold Engineering Development Center Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992

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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by Contract F40650-90-C-0061 between the National Academy of Sciences and the United States Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center. Available in limited supply from The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center COMMITTEE ON AEROSPACE TEST FACILITIES FOR THE ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER Mark E. Kirchner, Retired Director, Engineering Technology, The Boeing Company, Mercer Island, Washington, Chairman Judson R. Baron, Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts Seymour M. Bogdonoff, Professor, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Donald I. Carter, Director, Aerospace and Electronics Technologies, Rockwell International, El Segundo, California Lana M. Couch, Manager, Hypersonic Technology Office, Langley Research Center, NASA, Hampton, Virginia Arthur E. Fanning, Project Manager, New Wind Tunnel Complex, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington William H. Heiser, Visiting Professor from University of Tennessee Space Institute, Dept. of Aeronautics, USAF Academy, Colorado Bernard L. Koff, Executive Vice President, Group Engineering and Technology, Pratt & Whitney, West Palm Beach, Florida Robert E. Melnik, Grumman Research Fellow, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, New York Stephen C. Mercer, Manager of Aerodynamics, General Dynamics Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas George A. Paulikas, Group Vice President of Programs Group, Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California Victor L. Peterson, Deputy Director, Ames Research Center, NASA, Moffett Field, California Hershel Sams, Retired Vice President and General Manager, National Aero-Space Plane Program, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Petersburg, Florida Ronald Smelt, Retired Vice President and Chief Scientist, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Oakland, Oregon JoAnn C. Clayton, Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Vicki S. Johnson, Study Director (November 1990 through June 1991) Kamal J. Araj, Study Director (August 1991 through April 1992) Susan K. Coppinger, Project Assistant Theresa M. Fisher, Project Assistant (February through May 1992)

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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD Duane T. McRuer, President and Technical Director, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, California, Chairman James M. Beggs, Partner, J.M. Beggs Associates, Arlington, Virginia Richard G. Bradley, Director, Flight Sciences, Ft. Worth Division, General Dynamics, Ft. Worth, Texas Robert H. Cannon, Jr., Charles Lee Powell Professor and Chairman, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, California Eugene E. Covert, Professor, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts Ruth M. Davis, President and CEO, Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia Wolfgang H. Demisch, Managing Director, UBS Securities, New York, New York Charles W. Ellis, Retired Vice President V-22 Program, Boeing Vertol Company, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, (Deceased) Owen K. Garriott, Vice President, Space Programs, Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, Alabama John M. Hedgepeth, Retired President, Astro Aerospace Corporation, Santa Barbara, California Robert G. Loewy, Institute Professor, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York John M. Logsdon, Director, Space Policy Institute, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Frank E. Marble, Richard L. Hayman and Dorothy M. Hayman Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Professor of Jet Propulsion, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California John H. McElroy, Dean of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas (Term ended 12/31/91) Garner W. Miller, Retired Senior Vice President for Technology, USAir, Naples, Florida Franklin K. Moore, Joseph C. Ford Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Harvey O. Nay, Consultant, Twin Commander Aircraft Corporation, Marysville, Washington Frank E. Pickering, Vice President and General Manager, Aircraft Engines Engineering Division, General Electric Company, Lynn, Massachusetts Anatol Roshko, von Karman Professor of Aeronautics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California Maurice E. Shank, Retired Vice President, Pratt & Whitney of China, Inc., Bellevue, Washington and York Harbor, Maine Thomas P. Stafford, Vice Chairman, Stafford, Burke, and Hecker, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center Martin N. Titland, Chief Operating Officer, CTA, INCORPORATED, Rockville, Maryland Albertus D. Welliver, Corporate Vice President, Engineering and Technology, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington Staff: JoAnn C. Clayton, Director Noel E. Eldridge, Program Officer Anna L. Farrar, Administrative Associate Martin J. Kaszubowski, Senior Program Officer Allison C. Sandlin, Senior Program Officer Susan K. Coppinger, Senior Secretary Maryann Shanesy, Senior Secretary Christina A. Weinland, Administrative Assistant

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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center Preface Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans have been extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force. In the course of its study, the full committee met five times. The initial meeting was held at AEDC, where the committee members gained a common understanding of AEDC history, test facilities, Air Force/contractor relationships, and the current AEDC process for developing a master facilities plan. At this meeting, the committee formed subgroups on subsonic and supersonic applications, hypersonic and transatmospheric applications, propulsion applications (subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic), space vehicles and space propulsion, and a technical issues group. The second meeting was held at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base where the committee examined potential testing requirements of the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD), the National Aero-Space Plane program, and Wright Laboratories. In addition, the committee members considered questions concerning Air Force Systems Command usage waivers and familiarized themselves with ASD research facilities and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board's hypersonic technology roadmap. At its third meeting, the committee sought information from the various parts of the government that require testing for the space environment. The committee received requested briefings on the Strategic Defense Initiative Office's long-term testing needs, the Air Force's Space Systems Division's developmental planning, and Phillips Laboratory 's anticipated testing requirements and ballistic missile technology testing requirements. In addition, representatives of the committee met twice in Washington, D.C., with numerous individuals charged with responsibilities for test and evaluation in the Air Force, at the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Air Force Headquarters, and Air Force Systems Command. The fourth and fifth meetings, held at AEDC and the NRC Beckman Center, respectively, were used to define and distill the committee's findings and recommendations and to obtain additional data.

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Future Aerospace Ground Test Facility Requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center The committee greatly appreciates the prompt response of AEDC staff to numerous questions and requests for detailed information during the course of the study. Mark Kirchner, Chairman Committee on Aerospace Test Facilities