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Selected Bibliography The publications listed herein fall into three basic categories: The majority are more-or-less related to site investigations, in- cluding both field and laboratory work. Also included in this category are publications on ground classif ication systems and behavior predic- tions, which are two major products of a good s ite investigation. o Some of the publications are textbook-like volumes which contain '-. good background material on almost all aspects of tunnels and shafts. Practically all of them contain sections on s ite investigations and ground classif ication systems. Deserving special mention are the pro- ceedings of the Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference (RETC), which are so wide-ranging as to constitute an advanced text. Sponsored by ASCE and AIDE every two to three years, six of these conferences have been held since 1972. They attract technical papers from almost every specialty associated with mining, tunneling, and shaft construction. Each proceedings, although presupposing some knowledge of each subj ect covered, is an easily obtained storehouse of information on up-to-date design, construction, and site investigations. Many of the publications are technical papers that provided back- ground material on one or more of the pro jects that were researched for this study. The papers appeared in newsletters, technical journals, symposia proceedings, and other sources generally available to the pub- lic at large. Not listed are the scores of s ite investigation reports and con- struction history reports compiled by project owners or their geotech- nical consultants for specific sites and jobs. Even when made part of a contract document package, such reports are not readily available to the public and little purpose would be served by publishing their titles. American Society of Civil Engineers. 1971. Underground Rock Chambers (National Meeting on Water Resources Engineering). New York, N.Y.: American Society of Civil Engineers. 567 pp. Ash, J.L., B.E. Russel, and R.R. Rommel. 1974. Improved Subsurface In- vestigation for Highway Tunnel Design and Construction: Volume 1, Subsurface Investigation System Planning (Report F~WA-RD-74-29, Fed- eral Highway Administration). Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. 398 pp. 155

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Attewell, P.B., and C.R. Clark. 1980. "Site Investigation: How Much Should be Done.'' Tunnels and Tunnelling 11~10) :11-12. Aufmuth, R.E. 1974. "A Systematic Determination of Engineering Criteria for Rock." Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geologists XI(ll). Baguelin, F., and Jew. Jezequel. 1974. "The Self-Boring Placement Method of Soil Characteristics Measurements." Proceedings, Conference on Subsurface Exploration for Underground Excavation and Heavy Construc- tion. New Yor k, N . Y.: Amer ican Society of Civil Engineers . Baker, R.N., and A.F. Smith. 1975. "Conventional and Advanced Interpre- tative Techniques Applied to ERTS-1 Data: A New Tool for the Geolo- gist. " Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geologists XII (2) . Baker, W.H., E.J. Cording, and H.H. MacPherson. 1983. "Compaction Grout- ing to Control Ground Movements during Tunneling. " Underground Space 7 (3 ): 205-212 ~ Barton, N., R. Lien, and J. Lunde. 1975. "Estimation of Support Require- ments for Underground Excavation. " pp. 163-177 in Design Methods in Rock Mechanics (Proceedings, 16th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics). New York, N.Y.: American Society of Civil Engineers. Bates , R. L., and J. A. Jackson, eds . 1980 . Glossary of Geology (2nd edition). Falls Church, Va.: American Geological Institute. 751 pp. Bennett, R.D. 1981. Tunnel Cost-Estimating Methods (Report No. GL-81- 10~. Vicksburg, Miss.: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Sta- tion. 238 pp. Benson, R.P., D.K. Murphy, and D.R. McCreath. 1970. "Modulus Testing of Rock at the Churchill Falls Underground Powerhouse." Determination of the In-Situ Modulus of Deformation of Rock (Special Technical Publica- tion 477 ~ . Philadelphia, Pa .: American Society for Testing and Materials. Bickel, J.O., and T. R. Kuesel, eds. 1982. Tunnel Engineering Handbook. New York, N.Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 657 pp. Bieniawski, Z.T. 1973. Engineering Classification of Jointed Rock Mass- es and its Application (Report ME/1173/4, Geomechanics Division) . Pre- toria, South Africa: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Bieniawski , Z .T., ed. 1976, 1977. Exploration for Rock Engineering {Proceedings of the sympos ium, November 1976 ~ . Rotterdam, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema. Bieniawski, Z.T. 1977. "Design Investigations for Rock Caverns in South Africa. " Storage in Excavated Rock Caverns (Proceedings of the sym- posium, Stockholm). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. Bieniawski, Z.T. 1979. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications (Technical Report GL-79-19) . Vicksburg, Miss.: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 131 pp. Bieniawski, Z.T. 1984. Rock Mechanics Design in Mining and Tunneling. Boston/Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. 281 pp. Blackey, E.A., Jr. 1979. "Park River Auxiliary Tunnel." J. Construc- tion Division, ASCE:341-349. B1 indhe im, O. T . 19 76. "Preinves t igat ions, Resis tance to Blas ting and Drillability Predictions in Hard Rock Tunnelling. " Mechanical Boring or Dr ill and Blast Tunneling (Proceedings, 1st U. S. . -Swedish Underground Workshop) . Stockholm, Sweden: Svensk Byggt janst. 277 pp. Blindheim, O.T. 1979. "Drillability Predictions in Hard Rock Tunnel- ling. n Proceedings, Tunnelling '79. London, England: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 156

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Brekke, T. L., and F.A. Jorstad, eds. 1970 . Large Permanent Underground Openings (Proceedings of the international symposium, 1969~. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget. 372 pp. British Tunnelling Society. 1982. "Prediction and Reality in Tunnel Site Investigation. " Tunnels and Tunnelling (April):55-56. Brown, E.T., ed. 1981. Rock Characterization, Testing, and Monitoring (International Society for Rock Mechanics). Oxford, England: Peryamon Press. Brown, E.T., and E. Hoek. 1978. "Trends in Relationship Between Measured In Situ Stresses and Depth. n Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 15:211-215. Brown, R.S., and J.S. Redpath. 1979. "Ingenious Employment of Modern Equipment at Brunswick Mining." The Northern Miner {April) :1-4. Toronto, Canada: Richard C. Pearce (publisher). Bullock, R. L., and H.J. Jacoby, eds . 19 81. Proceedings , 1981 Rapid Ex- cavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Min- ing Engineers, AIME. Bullock, S.J. 1978. "The Case for Using Multi-Channel Seismic Refraction Equipment and Techniques in Site Investigations. n Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geologists XV(1~. California Department of Water Resources. 1963. Plate Bearing Tests at Oroville Powerhouse Site (Rock Mechanics Report RM-3~. Sacramento: California Department of Water Resources. California Department of Water Resources. 1963. Static Stress Determi- nations at Oroville Underground Powerhouse (~ock Mechanics Report RM-4~. Sacramento: California Department of Water Resources. Carabelli, E. 1970. "Improvements in Geophysical Methods for Measur ing Elastic Properties of Foundation Rocks. " Proceedings, 2nd Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Institut za Vodoprivredu "Jaroslav Cerni. " Carlsson, A. , and T. Olsson, eds. 1982. Characterization of Deep-Seated Rock Masses by Means of Borehole Investigations (Research and Devel- opment Report 5 :1) . Stockholm: Swedish State Power Board. 155 pp. Casey, E.F., and J.G. Ruggiero. 1982. "The Red Hook Intercepting Sewer" (Paper No. 408) . Municipal Engineers J.: 32-52. Cedergren, H. R. 196 7. Drainage and Flow Nets. New Yor k, N. Y.: John Wiley and Sons. Clough, G.W., B.P. Sweeney, and R.J. Finno. 1982. "Measured Soil Re- sponse to Advanced Shield Tunneling." J. Geotech. Eng. Division, ASCE 109 (2): 131-149. Cording, E.J. 1974. "Measurements of Displacements in Tunnels." Pro- ceedings, Second International Conference on Engineering Geology. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Associacao Brasileira de Geologico de Engenharia. Cording, E.J., A.J. Hendron, Jr., W.H. Hansmire, J.W. Mahar, H.H. MacPher- son, R.A. Jones, and T.D. O'Rourke. 1975. Methods for Geotechnical Observations and Instrumentation in Tunneling. Wash ington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. Critchfield, J.W., and G.S. Brierley. 1983. "Managing Subsurface Explo- rations for Sewer Tunnels in Rochester, NY." Proceedings, 1983 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engineers, AIME. 157

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Crous, C.M. 1971. "Computer-Assisted Interpretation of Electrical Sound- ings n (Thesis T-1363~. Golden: Colorado School of Mines. 108 pp. Dalton, F.E. 1983. "Chicago's TARP: Solving a Problem, Once and for All." Underground Space 7~3~:193-198. Daniels, J.J. 1974. "Interpretation of Electromagnetic Soundings Using a Layered Earth Model" {Thesis T-1627~. Golden: Colorado School of Mines. 84 pp. Daugherty, C.W., K.R. Ware, and J.P. Gould. 1976. "Selection of the Ver- tical Alignment of Rapid Transit Tunnels. Proceedings, 1976 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Eng ineers, AIME. Deere, D.U. 1968. "Geologic Considerations. " Rock Mechanics in Engi- neering Practice. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons. Deere, D.U., ed. 1970. Determination of the In Situ Modulus of Deforma- tion in Rock (Special Technical Publication 477~. Philadelphia, Pa: American Society for Testing and Materials. Deere, D.U. 1973. "The Foliation Shear Zone: An Adverse Engineering Geologic Feature of Metamorphic Rocks." J. Boston Soc. Civil Eng. {October). Deere, D.U., and R.P. Miller. 1966. Engineering Classification and In- dex Properties for Intact Rock (Technical Report AFWL-TR-65-1163. Kirtland AFB: Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Deming, M.R. 1983. "Stillwater Tunnel, A Better Outlook." Assoc. Eng. Geologists Newsletter:23-24. Dengler, W.R., J.S. Redpath, and R.S. Brown. 1976. "Borehole Hoisting for Shaft Sinking and Development at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Cor- poration Limited, Bathurst, New Brunswick." Proceedings, 1976 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference . Littleton, Colo .: Soc iety of Mining Engineers, AIME. Desai, A.J., M. Saidman, R. Hirschfeld, J. Rand, and R. Pizutti. 1976. "Geolog ic Investigation, Prediction and Cons truction Evaluation for the Cooling Water Tunnels--Seabrook, N.H., Nuclear Power Station." Pro- ceedings, 1976 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engineers, A~E. Donaldson, P. R., and G.V. Keller . 1974. Electromagnetic Surveying and Map Variation in Rock Strength (Report on Contract F19628-73-C-0042 for Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories). Hanscom Air Force Field, Mass.: Air Force Geophysical Laboratories. 27 pp. Dowding, C.H. 1976. Feasibility of Horizontal Boring for Site Investi- gation in Soil (Report FHWA-RD-76-1, Federal Highway Administration). Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. 394 pp. Drozd, K., R.E. Goodman, F.E. Heuze, and T.K. Van. 1970. "On the Problem of Borehole Strength Testing." Proceedings, 2nd Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Institut za Vodoprivredu "Jaroslav Cerni. " Dumble ton, M.J., and G. West. 1976. A Guide to Site Investigation Pro- cedures for Tunnels (Report 740~. Crowthorne, Berkshire: Transport and Road Research Laboratory. 25 pp. Einstein, H.H., A.S. Azzouz, A.F. McKown, and D.E. Thompson. 1983. "Evaluation of Design Performance: Porter Square Transit Station Cham- ber Lining. " Proceedings, 1983 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Confer- ence. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engineers, ADME. 158

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Federal Highway Administration and the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE. 1974. Subsurface Exploration for Underground Excavation and Heavy Construction {Proceedings of a Specialty Conference). New York, N.Y.: American Society of Civil Engineers. 403 pp. Fourmaintraux, D., G. Colombet, and P. Gesta. 1974. "Quantification Methods of Discontinuities in Rocks and Rock Masses in Order to Deter- mine their Influences on Performances of a Pick Boring Machine." Advances in Rock Mechanics (Proceedings, 3rd Congress of the Interna- tional Society for Rock Mechanics). Washington, D.C. : National Acad- emy of Sciences. Powell, R.J. 1970. "A Simple Method for Assessing the Machineability of Rocks." Tunnels and Tunnelling (July/August):251-253. Fox, N.S. 1981. Sensing Systems for Measuring Mechanical Properties in Ground Masses: Bore Hole Shear, Earth Settlement and Earth Penetrometer Probes (Report FHWA/RD-81-109, Federal Highway Administration). Springfield, Va: National Technical Information Service. 164 pp. Freeze, R.A., and J.A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Frobenius, P., B. Chytrowski, D. Roberts, and C.L. Wu. 1983. "Explora- tory Shafts and Underground Facility for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)." pp. 365-386 in Proceedings, 1983 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engineers, ACME. Galster, R.W. 1977. "A System of Engineering Geology Mapping Symbols." Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geologists XIV(1). Gentry, D.W., F.S. Kendorski, and J.F. Abel, Jr. 1971. "Tunnel Advance Rate Prediction Based on Geologic and Engineering Observations." Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 8(5):451-475. Gill, D.E., and C. LaFrance. 1979. "Prediction of Penetration Rates of a Full Face Boring Machine on Montreal Island." pp. 411-416 in Proceed- ings, 4th Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema. Golder Associates and James F. MacLaren, Ltd. 1976. Tunnelling Technol- ogy: An Appraisal of the State of the Art for Application to Transit Systems. Toronto, Canada: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications. 155 pp. Goodman, R.E. 1980. Introduction to Rock Mechanics . New Yor k, N. Y .: John Wiley and Sons. 478 pp. Goodman, R.E., D.G. Moye, and A. Van Schalkwyk. 1965. "Ground Water In- flows during Tunnel Driving." Engineering Geology 2{AEG):39-S6. Graham, P.C. 1976. "Pock Exploration for Machine Manufacturers." pp. 173-180 in Exploration for Rock Engineering (Volume 1~. dam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. Grice, R.H. 1966. "Engineering Geology of the Montreal Subway. " Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geologists III(1, 2~. Haller, H. F. and H. C. Pattison. 1972. "Predicting Plater ials Handling Properties of Tunnel Muck. " pp. 1279-1298 in Proceedings, North American Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference (Volume 2~. Lit- tleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engineers , AIME. Haller, H.F., H.C. Pattison and O.C. Baldenado. 1973. Interrelation- ship of In-Situ Rock Properties, Excavation Method, and Muck Charac- 159

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teristics (Final Technical Report for Contract HO220023~. Denver, Colo.: U.S. Bureau of Mines. 296 pp. Hampton, D., T.G. McCusker, and R.J. Essex. 1980. Representative Ground Parameters for Structural Analysis of Tunnels: Volume 2, In Situ Testing Techniques (Report No. FHWA/RD-80/013, Federal Highway Administration). Springfield, Va: National Technical Information Service. 319 pp. Hampton, D., J. S. Jin, and J.P. Black. 1981. Representative Ground Pa- rameters for Structural Analysis of Tunnels s Volume 3, Tunnel Design and Construction (Report No. FHWA/RD-80/014, Federal Highway Adminis- tration). Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. 201 pp. Handewith, H.J. 1970. "Predicting the Economic Success of Continuous Tunnelling in Hard Rock." Canadian Min. and Metallurgical J. 63~5~: 595-599 . Handewith, H.J. 1972. "Suggested Tunnel Investigation Criteria for Rock Boring Machines." pp. 177-186 in Proceedings, 8th Canadian Symposium on Rock Mechanics . Ottawa, Canada: Mines Branch, Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources. Harding, J.C., W.M. Mack, Jr., W.L. Still, and N. Tracy. 1976. Drilling and Preparation of Reusable, Long Range, Horizontal Bore Holes in Rock and in Gouge: Volume III, A Development Plan to Extend Penetration Capability, Increase Accuracy, and Reduce Costs {Report No. FHWA-RD-75- 97, Federal Highway Administration). Springfield, Va.: National Tech- nical Information Service. 291 pp. Heim, G.E., R.W. Messman, and H. Lawrence. 1970. "Geologic Exploration for Chicago-land and Other Deep Rock Tunnels to be Constructed by Mechanical Moles." pp. 141-173 in Deep Tunnels in Hard Rock- (Water Pollution Control Research Series, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. Heuze, F.E. 1971. "Sources of Error in Rock Mechanics Field Measurements and Related Solutions. " Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 8 (4~: 297-310. Hoek, E., and E.T. Brown. 1980. Underground Excavations in Rock. Lon- don, England: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 525 pp. Horino, F.G., and M.L. Ellickson. 1970. A Method for Estimating the Strength of Rock Containing Planes of Weakness. (Report of Investiga- tions 7449~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Mines. Houghton, D.A. 1975. "The Assessment of Rock Masses and the Role of Rock Quality Indices in Engineering Geology with Reference to Tunneling in Hard Rock n (M.S. Thesis). London, England: Imperial College. 122 pp. Huck, P.J., H.J. Pincus, M.M. Singh, and Y.P. Chugh. 1974. Determina- tion of the In-Situ State of Stress in Soil Masses (Report No. FHWA- RD-74-68, Federal Highway Administration) . Springfield, Va. : Nat~onal Technical Information Service. 316 pp. Hudson, J A., and S.D. Drew. 1976. An Impact Penetrometer for Assessing the Cutability of Soft Rock (Report 685~. Crowthorne, Berkshire: Transport and Road Research Laboratory. Hughes, J.M.O. 1973. "An Instrument for the In Situ Measurement of the Properties of Soft Clays" {Ph.D. Thesis). Cambridge, England: Univer- sity of Cambridge. Hulshizer, A.J., A.J. Desai, and J-P. Nossereau. 1978. "Design and In- stallation of Large Diameter Sub-Sea Connecting Shafts for the Seabrook 160

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Nuclear Power Plant. " pp. 237-246 in Proceedings, 10th Annual Off- shore Technology Conference (Volume 1) . Dallas , Tex .: Of fshore Technology Conference. Hulshizer, A.J., J.C. Stuart, R.L. Obradovic, and A.J. Stewart. 1979. "Land Shaft Construction and Initial Station Development for Seabrook Station Cooling Water Tunnelse" Proceedings, 1979 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engi- neers, AIDE. Hulshizer, A.J., M. Saidman, A.J. Stewart, and F.X. Bellini. 1981. "Production Experience and Computerized Evaluations of the Seabrook Tunnel Excavation." Proceedings, 1981 Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Littleton, Colo.: Society of Mining Engineers, AIME. Hulshizer, A. J., A.J. Desai, and J.A. Wilmer. 1981. "Seabrook Station Target Incentive Contract Shares Risk and Cost Savings" (International Tunnelling Association Conference, Nice, France). Philadelphia, Pa. : United Eng ineers and Constructors, Inc . 33 pp. Hustrulid, W.A. 1970. Development of a Tunnel Boreability Index (Re- port for Contract 14-06-D-6849, U.S. Bureau of Mines). Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. Hustrulid, W.A. 1972. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of Tunnel Boring by Machine with an Emphasis on Boreability Predictions and Machine Design (Interim report for Contract HO210043, U.S. Bureau of Mines). Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. 260 pp. Ikeda, K.A. 1970. "Classification of Rock Conditions for Tunneling." pp. 1258-1265 in Proceedings, 1st Congress of the International Asso- ciation of Engineering Geologists. Orly, France: Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees. Ikeda, K., and Y. Nishimatsu. 1980. "The Effect of Geotechnical Proper- ties of Rock Formations on the Productivity of Tunnel Bor ing Machines in Japan" (Report for Working Group on Research, ITA). Bron, France: International Tunnelling Association. 14 pp. Ilsley, R.C., and M.J. Costello. 1983. ''I)iscontinuity Characterization for Underground Openings in the Milwaukee Water Pollution Abatement Program." Underground Space 7~3~:214-220. Jager, B., M. Reinhardt and P. Weber. 1974. "Rock Properties and Their Influence on the Use of Tunneling Machines." pp. 1494-1500 in Ad- vances in Rock Mechanics (Proceedings, 3rd Congress of the Interna- tional Society for Rock Mechanics, Volume 2B). Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences. Javandel, I. 1965. "Ground Water Inflows During Tunnel Oraining." Bull. Assoc. Eng. Geologists II {1) . Jenni, J.P., and M. Balissit. 1979. "Rock Testing Methods Performed to Pred~ct the Utilization Possibilities of a Tunnel Boring Machine." pp. 267-274 in Proceedings, 4th Congress of the Tnternational Society for Rock Mechanics (tJolume 2 ~ . Rotterdam, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema . Johnson, Inc., VOP. 1975. Ground Water and Wells. St. Paul, Minn.: Johnson Divis ion, VOP Inc . Keller , G. V., A. B. Lebel, and E. L. Ausman, Jr . 1970 . Evaluation of Air- borne Electromagnetic S`arveying for Mapping Var iations in Rock Strength (Final report for project AFCRL-70-0701~. Golden: Colorado School of Mines. 161

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