Table 4.2 Shipboard Compatibility Attributes for Long-Range Waste Disposal Technologies

Attribute

Supercritical Water Oxidation

Molten Metal Technology

Plasma Arc Thermal Conversion Technology

Vitrification

Molten Salt Oxidation

Status of technology

  • One commercial plant operating ashore for a particular waste

  • ARPA program starts mid-95 to develop hardware for eventual shipboard application studies (30month study)

  • Commercial plant construction has begun for chemical and nuclear wastes

  • Technology being marketed for commercial applications to waste disposal

  • Naval application demos planned for waste

  • Feed development needed

  • Mature technology

  • Pending municipal waste stream demo with industry

  • Application development required

  • Navy shoreside hazardous waste demo being funded

  • Small-scale use since 1950s

  • Large R&D program in 1990s

  • DOD and DOE mixed waste

Process versatility

  • Solids pumpable as slurry

  • Organics destruction

  • Inorganics decontamination and concentration

  • All shipboard solid waste can be processed

  • Concentration of liquid waste streams required

  • Shred solids

  • All shipboard solid waste can be processed

  • Concentration of liquid waste streams required

  • Shred solids

  • Concentration of liquid waste streams required

  • Shred solids

  • Large capacity possible

  • Combustible solids

  • Organic liquids

Process density

  • 0.5 to 1.4 lb/h/ft2

  • Not known

  • 0.5 to 1 lb/h/ft2

  • 100 to 300 lb/h/ft2 organics

  • 15 to 30 lb/h/ft2 inorganics

  • Not known

Ship system demands

  • Cooling water

  • Electric power

  • Discharge pump (brine)

  • Ventilation

  • Fresh water feed

  • Cooling water

  • Electric power

  • Ventilation

  • Stack gas treatment

  • Cooling water

  • Need inert gas

  • Ventilation

  • Stack gas treatment

  • Electric power

  • Cooling water

  • Ventilation

  • Need stack gas treatment

  • Electric power

  • Salt resupply

  • Low-pressure air or oxygen

  • Cooling water

  • Ventilation

  • Stack treatment

  • Fuel/electricity for startup

Installation flexibility

  • Surface ship only

  • Surface ship only

  • Surface ship only

  • Surface ship only

  • Surface ships only

Ship motion effects

  • Manageable

  • Need design development to minimize effects of ship motion on molten pool

  • Need design development to minimize effects of ship motion on molten pool

  • Need design development to minimize effects of ship motion on molten pool

  • Need to minimize effects on molten salt pool

Process sensitivity

  • Streams that result in salt formation require additional in-reactor technology

  • Must be maintained molten, or long startup required

  • Unknown

  • High temperature must be established but can be accomplished quickly

  • Unknown

  • Must be maintained molten, or long startup

  • Keep molten salt or extended startup

  • Salt disposal

End products

  • CO2

  • H2O

  • N2

  • Solid salts possible

  • Metal ions

  • Combustible gas (fuel gas)

  • HCl

  • Slag

  • Volatile metals

  • Slag

  • Stack gas

  • Combustible pyrolysis gas

  • Vitrified solid (glass)

  • Stack gas

  • Must burn off combustible gas (fuel gas)

  • Combustible pyrolysis gas

  • CO2, H2O, N2, O2

  • Salt particulates

  • Spent salts

Process safety

  • High pressure water/steam

  • May require injection of caustic

  • High pressure O2

  • Very high temperatures

  • Handling of hot slag

  • Flammable product gases

  • Very high temperature

  • High voltage

  • Molten slag

  • Flammable product gas

  • Very high temperature

  • Handling of molten glass product

  • Flammable product gas

  • Hot molten salt

  • Possible superheated vapor explosion

  • Spent salts

Projected reliability

  • High pressure slurry feed pump

  • Reactor materials (corrosion)

  • Vessel cleaning of scale/salts

  • Unknown

  • Unknown

  • Few moving parts

  • High temperature risks

  • Unknown

Projected maintainability

  • Mechanically able to service anticipated equipment

  • Vessel life from corrosion standpoint unknown

  • Unknown

  • Unknown

  • Unknown

  • Unknown

Projected controllability

  • Auto control can be applied

  • Control temperature pressure and effluents

  • Unknown

  • Development needed

  • Shutdown not a problem

  • Not complicated

  • Unknown



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