Appendix A

Waste Stream Characterization

Waste stream characterization is a subject that has received considerable attention in recent years but the data are not reported in consistent units, they tend to be incomplete, and large variations exist from one source to another. For Annex V waste, the data are given in Table A.1. Practice in materials management is known to vary from ship to ship.

For purposes of this report, the Navy surface ship numbers (U.S. Navy, 1993) are used. It is suggested that one significant figure confidence is appropriate.

There has been some effort to break down the Annex V classes into more specific categories, but the results are not very useful. For example, plastics are said to be 60 percent miscellaneous and 38 percent film (Manzi, 1994). It is of interest to know the chlorine content of the plastic because this can affect the cleanness of the incineration process. Navy waste is said to have a low PVC concentration (Craig Alig, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock-Annapolis Division, personal communication, 1995). Saran-type films are known to be a part of the plastic waste (CDR Willson, USN, private communication, 1995), and this material has a formula poly(CH2CCl2). PVC is poly(CH2CHCl). In the absence of specific data, it is difficult to predict the effect of chlorine on combustion, but incineration of 0.2 lb of mixed plastic with 1.1 lb of paper should be manageable in terms of emissions. Paper waste (Manzi, 1994) is reported to be more than two-thirds newspapers, magazines, and the like. The rest is office and computer paper. Metal is reported (Manzi, 1994) to be 23 percent aluminum, 73 percent ferrous, and 4 percent other (e.g., copper wire). The information summarized here does not reveal any problems in connection with the committee conclusion that technology does exist for compliance with Annex V.

Reported waste quantities for non-Annex V materials are given in Table A.2.

Table A.1 Waste Generated (lb/person/day)

 

NAVY 1

PRINCESS 2

MANZI 3

USSK AMEHAMEHA

SCHULTZ 4

Paper

1.1

1.8

0.3

0.3

Metal

0.5

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.4

Glass

0.1

2.4

0.04

0

0.1

Plastics

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.1

1  U.S. Navy (1993).

2   Richard Wade, personal communication, 1995.

3   Manzi (1994).

4   Schultz and Upton (1988).



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OCR for page 47
SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V Appendix A Waste Stream Characterization Waste stream characterization is a subject that has received considerable attention in recent years but the data are not reported in consistent units, they tend to be incomplete, and large variations exist from one source to another. For Annex V waste, the data are given in Table A.1. Practice in materials management is known to vary from ship to ship. For purposes of this report, the Navy surface ship numbers (U.S. Navy, 1993) are used. It is suggested that one significant figure confidence is appropriate. There has been some effort to break down the Annex V classes into more specific categories, but the results are not very useful. For example, plastics are said to be 60 percent miscellaneous and 38 percent film (Manzi, 1994). It is of interest to know the chlorine content of the plastic because this can affect the cleanness of the incineration process. Navy waste is said to have a low PVC concentration (Craig Alig, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock-Annapolis Division, personal communication, 1995). Saran-type films are known to be a part of the plastic waste (CDR Willson, USN, private communication, 1995), and this material has a formula poly(CH2CCl2). PVC is poly(CH2CHCl). In the absence of specific data, it is difficult to predict the effect of chlorine on combustion, but incineration of 0.2 lb of mixed plastic with 1.1 lb of paper should be manageable in terms of emissions. Paper waste (Manzi, 1994) is reported to be more than two-thirds newspapers, magazines, and the like. The rest is office and computer paper. Metal is reported (Manzi, 1994) to be 23 percent aluminum, 73 percent ferrous, and 4 percent other (e.g., copper wire). The information summarized here does not reveal any problems in connection with the committee conclusion that technology does exist for compliance with Annex V. Reported waste quantities for non-Annex V materials are given in Table A.2. Table A.1 Waste Generated (lb/person/day)   NAVY 1 PRINCESS 2 MANZI 3 USSK AMEHAMEHA SCHULTZ 4 Paper 1.1 1.8 0.3 0.3 – Metal 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.4 Glass 0.1 2.4 0.04 0 0.1 Plastics 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 – 1  U.S. Navy (1993). 2   Richard Wade, personal communication, 1995. 3   Manzi (1994). 4   Schultz and Upton (1988).

OCR for page 47
SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V Table A.2 Non-Annex V Waste Generated (lb/person/day)   NAVY 1 PRINCESS 2 Food 1.2 2.7 Black water 25 to 125 90 Gray water 210 300 Laundry water 40 90 1   U.S. Navy (1993). 2   Richard Wade, personal communication, 1995.