Table C.3 Concentration of Metals in Ash (Deerberg Systems)




pH (after agitation)



Arsenic, As



Cadmium, Cd



Lead, Pb



Mercury, Hg



Barium, Ba



Chromium, Cr


5 (Cr VI)

Selenium, Se



Silver, Ag



EPA Standards for Municipal Incinerators

There are currently no regulations on emission levels for shipboard incinerators. In the absence of such guidelines, it has been suggested that comparisons be made with emission standards for incinerators burning municipal wastes from smaller cities. However, the EPA has not announced regulations for controlling emissions from small waste combustion (with or without energy recovery) plants. Emission guidelines have been issued (U.S. EPA, 1994) for incinerators with capacities about five times greater than those found aboard a large cruise ship. There is no generally accepted method for scaling emission standards from a larger source (such as the 40 ton/day incinerator) to a smaller source (such as a group of naval vessels). For existing municipal waste combustors with capacities greater than 40 tons/day, but less than 260 tons/day, the CO emission level should be less than 50 ppmv with a 4-hour averaging time. The allowable organic emissions (measured as dioxin/furan) is 60 ng/dscm total mass or 1.0 ng/dscm dioxin/furan toxic equivalent.

For municipal waste incinerators with a capacity of between 40 and 260 tons/day, the guidelines in Table C.4 have been proposed (U.S. EPA, 1994).

The recommended frequency of tests is a stack test at least once in 3 years, or annually if possible. Not all of these substances may be of interest in the incineration of the naval shipboard wastes likely to be aboard during normal operation. However, the list provides a starting point for the development by the Navy of a protocol suitable to its own needs.

Protocol for Characterization of Air Emissions from Navy Shipboard Incinerators

It is currently not possible to compare data on emissions from various manufacturers. Operating procedures and sampling methods are not uniform and usually are not specified by the vendors. Hence, manufacturers ' data on air emissions cannot be used in more than a qualitative way to select a technology for purchase.

The Navy should develop a protocol for the characterization of air emissions from shipboard incinerators. The protocol should include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following components: NOx, SOx, CO, CO2, particulate matter, HCl, dioxins, metals, and total hydrocarbons. Appropriate sampling trains should be specified, along with incinerator feeds and operating conditions, including air flow rates and temperatures. Measurements should be made by companies skilled in air emissions measurements, as certified by the Navy. The measurements can be conducted at land-based facilitiesoperated by the manufacturers and/or shipboard installations. The Navy has facilities and competence inhouse and can verify commercial results.

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