1 Black water is human waste from latrines and urinals.
2 Gray water is the effluent from showers, sinks, laundry, dishwashers, the galley, the scullery, and so on.
The cost estimates given earlier do not include testing and installation costs. The committee has been told informally that the final cost of installed equipment on ships is typically seven times the supplier price. As it is envisioned that the entire fleet is to be equipped, although not all classes by the same technology, it is suggested that there should be economies of scale that could moderate the usual installation markup.
Source Reduction: Source reduction of waste materials, already practiced by the Navy, is endorsed as an important step toward Annex V compliance. It is recommended that the Navy set specific,demanding goals for source reduction for surface ships and submarines covering the periods up to2000 and to 2008, respectively.
Integrated Systems Approach:It is recommended that the Navy adopt an integrated systemsapproach to manage all shipboard waste streams. It is now technically feasible to install and operate systems that will comply with Annex V restrictions and handle other waste streams as well. Avoidance of a piecemeal approach should offer economies of space and investment. The systems chosen may differ from one class of ship to another, but key elements will be common:
On-board reduction of the volume of waste streams by mechanical compaction, incineration, and other destructive technologies; and
On-board storage of waste for later transfer to shore facilities (either directly or by transfer to other ships) for landfill disposal or recycling or for legal ocean discharge outside Special Areas.
Mechanical Compaction:It is recommended that the Navy initiate a high-priority program toimplement compaction and storage of Annex V waste streams to achieve compliance for surface shipsby the year 2000. Commercial equipment exists in a variety of forms suited to the various Annex V waste streams. The Navy has developed its own equipment in this connection. Appropriate steps must be taken to eliminate any potential fire hazards.
Incineration:It is recommended that the Navy obtain experience with modern incinerator technologyas a partial solution to waste management for Annex V compliance for surface ships by the year 2000