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OCR for page R11
SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1      SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: THE U.S. NAVY AND MARPOL, ANNEX V   1      RECOMMENDATIONS   6  1   INTRODUCTION   8      FLEET OVERVIEW   8      OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT   9      MANAGERIAL ASPECTS   9      TECHNOLOGY   10      U.S. NAVY 1993 PLAN   11      COMPLIANCE ACTIVITIES OF OTHER NAVIES   11      United Kingdom   11      Germany   11      U.S. COAST GUARD COMPLIANCE PLAN   12  2   MECHANICAL METHODS   13      SHREDDERS AND COMPACTORS   13      PULPERS   14      FOOD CONTAMINATION   15      MECHANICAL PROCESSING EQUIPMENT   15  3   INCINERATION   18      INTRODUCTION   18      APPLICABILITY OF INCINERATION TO NAVY VESSELS   20      FACTORS IN THE USE OF INCINERATION   21      Feed Systems   21      Incinerator Grates   21      Combustion Chambers   21      Cooling Systems   21      Emissions   21      Health and Air Quality Concerns   23      Obstacles to Incineration   23      SHORT-TERM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INCINERATION OPTION   23  4   LONG-RANGE OPTIONS: COMPETITION FOR INCINERATION   25      ALTERNATIVE DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES/COMPETITORS FOR INCINERATION   25      Pyrolytic Methods   25      Oxidative Methods   27      Shipboard Compatibility   28      DISCUSSION   29

OCR for page R11
SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V  5   INTEGRATED SYSTEMS APPROACH   31  6   LONG-RANGE OPTIONS: ADVANCED METHODS FOR HANDLING LIQUID WASTE   34      FIVE SAMPLE METHODS/TECHNOLOGIES   34      Biological Treatment of Wastewater   34      Advanced Separations—Ultrafiltration   34      Advanced Oxidation—Semiconductor Photocatalysis   35      Electrohydraulic Cavitation   36      Pulsed-Power Cold-Plasma Reactors   37      SHIPBOARD COMPATIBILITY   38  7   WASTE HANDLING ON SUBMARINES   41     REFERENCES   44  APPENDIX A   WASTE STREAM CHARACTERIZATION   47  APPENDIX B   MATERIALS MANAGEMENT   49      PACKAGING REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES   49      Shipping Containers   49      Soft Drinks   50      Food Packaging   50      Nonfood Packaging   50      SUMMARY   51  APPENDIX C   AIR EMISSIONS AND AIR QUALITY   52      INTRODUCTION   52      MEASUREMENTS OF SHIPBOARD INCINERATOR EMISSIONS   52      EPA STANDARDS FOR MUNICIPAL INCINERATORS   54      PROTOCOL FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM NAVY SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS   54      GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM PLASTICS COMPACTORS: R&D NEEDS   55      POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER   56      SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS   56