SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL

U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V

Committee on Shipboard Pollution Control

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V Committee on Shipboard Pollution Control Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-93-C-0089 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report are available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V COMMITTEE ON SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey, Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALLEN M. BISSELL, Chevy Chase, Maryland EDWARD J. BOUWER, Johns Hopkins University JOHN B. CARBERRY, DuPont Science & Engineering SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER, University of California at Los Angeles DOUGLAS W. FUERSTENAU, University of California at Berkeley EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography MICHAEL R. HOFFMANN, California Institute of Technology GEORGE P. KORFIATIS, Stevens Institute of Technology JOANN S. LIGHTY, University of Utah THOMAS P. MACKEY, Hyde Products, Inc. MALCOLM MacKINNON III, MSCL, Inc. BRIAN D. NEHRBASS, Newport News Shipbuilding ROBERT M. NOWAK, Michigan Molecular Institute DAVID F. OLLIS, North Carolina State University WILLIAM A. PETERS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN POWELL, University of Houston ADEL F. SAROFIM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WALTER J. SCHRENK, Midland, Michigan SUSAN E.M. SELKE, Michigan State University CHARLES H. SINEX, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University WILLIAM TUMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory KENNETH L. TUTTLE, U.S. Naval Academy N.C. VASUKI, Delaware Solid Waste Authority RICHARD L. WADE, Princess Cruise Lines THOMAS D. WAITE, University of Miami LILY Y. YOUNG, Rutgers University Navy Liaison Representatives RONALD DeMARCO, Office of Naval Research LAWRENCE KOSS, N452, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations CDR JOHN LANE WILLSON, USN, N45F, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Consultants SIDNEY G. REED, JR. JAMES G. WILSON Staff RONALD D. TAYLOR

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V NAVAL STUDIES BOARD DAVID R. HEEBNER, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Vice Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute NORVAL L. BROOME, The Mitre Corporation GERALD A. CANN, Raytheon Electronic Systems SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor ANTHONY J. DeMARIA, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. JOHN F. EGAN, Lockheed Martin Corporation RALPH R. GOODMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University (through December 31, 1995) ROBERT HUMMEL, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (as of January 1, 1996) SHERRA E. KERNS, Vanderbilt University (through December 31, 1995) DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey ROBERT J. MURRAY, Center for Naval Analyses ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University WILLIAM J. PHILLIPS, Northstar Associates, Inc. (as of January 1, 1996) ALAN POWELL, University of Houston (through December 31, 1995) MARA G. PRENTISS, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University HERBERT RABIN, University of Maryland JULIE JCH RYAN, Booz, Allen and Hamilton HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California (as of January 1, 1996) KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation H. GREGORY TORNATORE, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. PACE VanDEVENDER, Sandia National Laboratories VINCENT VITTO, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BRUCE WALD, Arlington Education Consultants Navy Liaison Representatives PAUL G. BLATCH, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations RONALD N. KOSTOFF, Office of Naval Research RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant MARY (DIXIE) GORDON, Information Officer ANGELA C. LOGAN, Project Assistant

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, W.R. Grace and Co. JOHN H. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory KEN KENNEDY, Rice University THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota LEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, The Mitre Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V Preface In response to a request by senior representatives of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Office of the Chief of Naval Research, the National Research Council (NRC) conducted an assessment of shipboard pollution control technologies. The Committee on Shipboard Pollution Control, operating under the auspices of the NRC's Naval Studies Board, was appointed to study, evaluate, and report on the various technological options available to the Navy in connection with compliance with the requirements of Regulation 5 of Annex V of the MARPOL Convention as directed by the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (33 U.S.C. 1902) and modified by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994. Annex V classifies waste and sets conditions on the disposal of waste in the earth's waters. In addition, “Special Areas,” e.g., the Baltic Sea, are designated for stricter conditions of disposal. A number of Special Areas have been designated but are not yet in force, e.g., the Mediterranean and Greater Caribbean Seas, pending development of suitable shore infrastructure to accommodate the shipborne waste. Although naval ships are exempt from Annex V regulations, the U.S. Congress has directed, in the above legislation, that the U.S. Navy comply with them. Other navies around the world also are moving toward compliance. For the U.S. Navy, compliance implies finding feasible technologies (that may be fitted to all existing and planned Navy ships) that can eliminate discharge of plastic waste from all surface ships by December 31, 1998, and discharge of all nonfood solids from Navy ships in Special Areas by the year 2000 for surface ships and 2008 for submarines. The Navy's request called for the committee to evaluate the technology status, additional developments and testing required, the time frame for implementation, and estimates of costs for the various technological options. Additionally, the committee was asked to identify further technology development and strategies by means of which the Navy can achieve compliance and to make recommendations for research and development that may provide more advantageous compliance in the long term. The specific charge to the committee called for answers to the following questions: What is the technical feasibility of eliminating, by 2000 for surface ships and 2008 for submarines, nonfood solid waste discharge from Navy ships operating in Special Areas? What is the feasibility of backfitting existing ships versus forwardfitting newly constructed ships? What shipboard technologies or procedures will be needed to eliminate such discharges? What is the status of the technologies? What additional development and testing are required? How soon might the technologies be ready for installation? How much might the equipment cost per ship? What is the time frame for completing development and beginning shipboard installation of the new technologies? What are the approximate costs to develop, purchase, and install the new technologies? Accepting answers to Questions 1-4 as the study's number one priority, but recognizing that environmental restrictions on Navy ships and submarines may increase with time, what additional technologies and practices hold promise of ultimately permitting Navy ships to be discharge-free during the course of an average cruise?

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V The study began in December 1994 and lasted approximately 9 months. During that time, the committee, which divided its effort among three groups (Mechanical Methods, Chemical Methods, and Long-Range Options and Systems/Operations), held the following meetings and visited numerous ships: December 20-21, 1994, in Washington, D.C. Organizational meeting. Navy briefs. January 21-22, 1995, in Port Everglades, Florida. Toured cruise line ship Regal Princess. February 16-17, 1995, in Annapolis, Maryland. Site visit to examine Navy's plastics processor, pulpers, and membrane technology. March 21-24, 1995. Some committee members participated in the Secretary of the Navy Guest Program on Environmental Issues. Visited USS Hyman Rickover, USS Laboon, and USS Theodore Roosevelt. Also visited land-based environmental facilities in Norfolk, Virginia, and at Camp LeJeune, North Carolina. April 11-13, 1995, in Washington, D.C. Vendor poster session. Advanced technology briefs. April 10, 1995, in Norfolk, Virginia. Ship visits. Visited USS Narwhal, USS Yorktown, USS Saipan, USS Wasp, and USS Shreveport. May 16, 1995, in Washington, D.C. Mechanical Methods Group meeting. June 13, 1995, in Washington, D.C. Long-Range Group meeting. June 28, 1995, in Washington, D.C. Chemical Methods Group meeting. July 12, 1995, in Washington, D.C. Long-Range Group meeting. July 25-26, 1995, in Irvine, California. Plenary meeting for full committee. The resulting report represents the committee's consensus view on the issues posed in the charge.

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V Acknowledgments The Committee on Shipboard Pollution Control feels a deep gratitude to the many individuals who provided all manner of assistance in the conduct of the study. U.S. Navy support is acknowledged in connection with tours of Navy ships and briefings on past and current Navy programs and the results of diverse studies relevant to the committee's mission. The Honorable John H. Dalton, Secretary of the Navy, gave a number of committee members the privilege of an extensive tour of Navy ships and other facilities, which enabled first-hand observation of the complexities of Navy hardware and practice, as well as direct discussions with Navy personnel. The Honorable Elsie L. Munsell, Deputy Under Secretary of the Navy (Environment and Safety), and RADM Luther F. Schriefer, USN, accompanied the group and provided information and insights. The group's tour began with a greeting and briefing by ADM William J. Flanagan, Jr., USN (Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet). The tour included memorable visits aboard the USS Theodore Roosevelt, at sea, the USS Laboon, and the USS Hyman Rickover. Special thanks go to RADM Kendall Pease, USN, and LT Christopher A. Dour, USN, for expert handling of tour arrangements. On a separate tour, committee members visited the USS Narwhal, the USS Saipan, the USS Shreveport, the USS Yorktown, and the USS Wasp. The committee thanks the officers and crews of all these ships for their hospitality and information imparted. The experiences were enjoyable and enlightening for committee members. Detailed briefings were provided by a group led by Ms. Munsell and Admiral Schriefer. Speakers included RADM W.F. Doran, CAPT R.L. Steinbrugge, CAPT S. Evans, Mr. Larry Koss, Mr. Arthur Smookler, Dr. Ronald DeMarco, and CDR M. Culberson. These speakers gave the committee a clear picture of Navy environmental programs related to the committee assignment. The committee was also given an introduction to and demonstration of Navy-developed environmental hardware at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock-Annapolis Division. Navy participants in this program included C. Alig, S. Gill, J. Grovhoug, A. Rodriguez, and N. Upton. These briefings were of great value to the committee. The committee wishes to thank all of the individuals involved. During the course of the study, briefings on advanced technology were provided by the following individuals: Larry Dubois, Advanced Research Projects Agency; Bruce Sartwell, Naval Research Laboratory; Craig Alig, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis Division; Klaus Schadow, Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake; and Jeffrey Surma, Battelle. These briefings were valuable in connection with understanding technologies that have an impact on future systems, particularly supercritical water oxidation, plasma arc technology, compact incineration, and vitrification. The Committee on Shipboard Pollution Control was fortunate that the Marine Board of the National Research Council completed a broad study of marine waste issues just in time to be of use to the committee. The report Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1995) was prepared by the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, chaired by William R. Murden, Jr. (Murden Marine Ltd.) under the auspices of the Marine Board, Charles A. Bookman, Director. This report is strongly recommended for general background in connection with compliance issues. In this context, the committee was briefed by Charles Bookman and Larry Swanson (Waste Management Institute, State University of New York). The committee wishes to thank these individuals for their contributions. The committee wishes to express its appreciation for the privilege of visiting the ship Regal Princess of the Princess Cruise Lines, Peter Ratcliff, President. This tour was arranged by committee member Dr. Richard Wade, and briefings on ship environmental systems were provided by Captain Cesare Ditel and Chief Engineer Piero Ferrero. The hospitality of Gian Paolo Marchi is acknowledged with pleasure. This tour gave the committee members direct observation of a state-of-the-art integrated system for management of marine waste.

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SHIPBOARD POLLUTION CONTROL: U.S. Navy Compliance With MARPOL Annex V The committee is also grateful to the vendors of marine waste management equipment who gave generously of their time in providing information vital to the committee mission at a gathering at the National Research Council's Georgetown facilities in April 1995. The following companies and individuals participated: ABB Raymond, Ralph R. Ferrell; Allied Defense Industries, Inc. (representing Strachan & Henshaw), Terry Silampa; Brule CC&E, Robert T. Poe; Consolidated Defense Corporation, Joseph Longo; Deerberg Systems, Jochen Deerberg; Enercon Systems, David A. Hoecke; International Compactor, Michael J. Pierson; Leslie Technologies, James DeFore; Norsk Hydro Waste Treatment Systems, Johannes Adderhaugen, Bjorn Fossen; Plasma Energy Applied Technology, Edward F. Snow; ReTech, Richard C. Eschenbach; Somat, Aleda P. Loughman, Amelia Collins; Sonoma Research, Oleh Weres; and Ventomatic, Frank M. Hillery. Deerberg and Norsk Hydro kindly provided extensive information packages describing integrated systems in detail. The committee benefited from many other discussions with individuals in the field of marine waste management. Although the analyses and conclusions of this report are those of the committee, a great deal of information was provided by people and organizations not mentioned above. The committee is nonetheless grateful to these contributors. A special vote of thanks goes to CDR J. Lane Willson, USN, who provided important liaison services necessary during the information gathering phase of the study.