America's Fathers and Public Policy

Report of a Workshop

Nancy A. Crowell and Ethel M. Leeper, Editors

Board on Children and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

Institute of Medicine

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1994



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America's Fathers and Public Policy: Report of a Workshop America's Fathers and Public Policy Report of a Workshop Nancy A. Crowell and Ethel M. Leeper, Editors Board on Children and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council Institute of Medicine National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994

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America's Fathers and Public Policy: Report of a Workshop NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, but the Corporation does not take responsibility for any views or statements in this report. Available from: Board on Children and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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America's Fathers and Public Policy: Report of a Workshop BOARD ON CHILDREN AND FAMILIES SHELDON H. WHITE (Chair), Department of Psychology, Harvard University JACK P. SHONKOFF (Vice Chair), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School JOMILLS H. BRADDOCK, II, Department of Sociology, University of Miami LARRY BUMPASS, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin FERNANDO A. GUERRA, Director of Health, San Antonio Metropolitan Health District BERNARD GUYER, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Johns Hopkins University ALETHA C. HUSTON, Human Development and Family Life, University of Kansas ROBERT MICHAEL, Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco JULIUS B. RICHMOND, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard University Medical School LISBETH B. SCHORR, Harvard Project on Effective Services, Harvard University CAROLE SIMPSON, ABC News, Washington, D.C. DEBORAH STIPEK, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles DIANA TAYLOR, Women's Health Program, Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California, San Francisco GAIL WILENSKY, Project Hope, Bethesda, Maryland RUTH T. GROSS (Liaison), Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine DEBORAH A. PHILLIPS, Director NANCY A. CROWELL, Research Associate DRUSILLA BARNES, Senior Project Assistant

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America's Fathers and Public Policy: Report of a Workshop WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS ELIJAH ANDERSON, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania CHARLES BALLARD, National Institute for Responsible Fatherhood, Cleveland, OH ANDREW CHERLIN, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University BARBARA CLINTON, Center for Health Services, Vanderbilt University Medical Center THOMAS J. DOWNEY, Thomas J. Downey and Associates, Washington, DC MARTHA FINEMAN, Columbia University Law School JAMES GALLAGHER,* University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill IRWIN GARFINKEL, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University JOHN HAGEN, Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan TAMARA HAREVEN,* Department of Family Studies and History, University of Delaware RON HASKINS, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives,Washington, DC MICHAEL KIMMEL, Department of Sociology, University of California at Berkeley MARTHA W. KRAUSS, Starr Center for Mental Retardation, Brandeis University JOHN KYLE, National League of Cities, Washington, DC JAMES LEVINE, Families and Work Institute, New York, NY ROBERT LEVY, School of Law, University of Minnesota RICHARD MAJORS, Psychology Department, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire WILLIAM MARSIGLIO, Sociology Department, University of Florida JAMES MAY, The Merrywood School, Bellevue, and National Fathers Network, Seattle, WA JOHN McADOO, Department of Family and Child Ecology, Michigan State University RONALD MINCY,* Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC ROBERT MNOOKIN, Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School ROSS PARKE, Psychology Department, University of California at Riverside VICKY PHARES, Psychology Department, University of South Florida WENDELL PRIMUS, Office of Human Services Policy, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC

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America's Fathers and Public Policy: Report of a Workshop JUDITH SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison FREYA SONENSTEIN, The Urban Institute, Washington, DC ANN TURNBULL, Beach Center on Families and Disability, University of Kansas DARRYL WARD, Office of Congressman Lucien Blackwell, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC DONALD WERTLIEB,* Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Study, Tufts University * Workshop planning group

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America's Fathers and Public Policy: Report of a Workshop Acknowledgment Major support for this activity was provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York through its core funding of the Board on Children and Families and the board's predecessor, the Forum on the Future of Children and Families. Thank you to the members of the forum for initiating this project, which was completed under the auspices of the board. Special thanks to Patricia Place, who oversaw the initial planning activities as director of the National Forum on the Future of Children and Families. In May 1993 the success of the Forum and its many activities led the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine to establish the Board on Children and Families. Thank you to all the presenters and participants for their time and contributions. Special thanks goes to the planning group—James Gallagher, Tamara Hareven, Ronald Mincy, and Donald Wertlieb—who gave freely of their time to set the agenda and help select participants, as well as contributing to the meeting. A special note of appreciation is due Donald Wertlieb, chair of the planning group, for his attention and continual assistance in planning and running the workshop. Thanks are also due to Nancy A. Crowell and Ethel M. Leeper for a distillation of the major themes that emerged from the workshop and for their work on this summary report. In addition, much appreciation to Deborah A. Phillips, director of the board, for her insightful input into this report, and to Drusilla Barnes, senior project assistant, for her efforts in organizing the meeting. Sheldon H. White, Chair Board on Children and Families

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