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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 Chapter 5 Physics Laboratory
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 PANEL MEMBERS Samuel A. Werner, University of Missouri, Columbia, Chair C. Denise Caldwell, University of Central Florida Stuart J.B. Crampton, Williams College William C. Eckelman, National Institutes of Health Leopoldo M. Falicov, University of California at Berkeley Louis C. Glasgow, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. Andrew U. Hazi, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Klaus B. Jaeger, Lockheed Missiles Space Company, Inc. Anthony M. Johnson, AT&T Bell Laboratories Andrew Kaldor, Exxon Research and Engineering Company James E. Lawler, University of Wisconsin Edwin C. McCullough, Mayo Clinic/Foundation Robert F. Morrissey, Johnson & Johnson Associates, Inc. David A. Shirley, Pennsylvania State University Robert F.C. Vessot, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Philip Wychorski, Eastman Kodak Company Ex Officio Member David E. Pritchard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair, Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics Subpanel This report is an assessment of the fiscal year 1994 activities of the Physics Laboratory at NIST. It is based on site visits to the laboratory by individual panel members in March and April 1994, on a meeting of the full panel in Boulder, Colorado, on May 2-3, 1994, on the annual report of the laboratory, and on many research papers and reports provided to individual panel members.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 LABORATORY OVERVIEW Mission The mission of the Physics Laboratory is to support U.S. industry by providing measurement services and research for electronic, optical, and radiation technology by pursuing directed research; developing new physical standards, measurement methods, and data; conducting an aggressive dissemination program; and collaborating with industry to apply its discoveries and commercialize its inventions. Strategy The Physics Laboratory addresses the above mission through the fundamental triad of standards, measurement, and data within the context of internationally competitive research. The quality of the laboratory's service to industry and the public at large stems from its breadth, vigor, and excellence in its research programs. In recognition of NIST's obligation to assure that the maximum public benefit be derived from its research, the laboratory pursues a vigorous dissemination program, including measurement services, workshops, publications, and collaborations with industry, universities, and other agencies of government. The laboratory is vertically integrated, spanning the full range of programs from tests of fundamental postulates of physics through generic technology to the more immediate needs of industry and commerce. Its constituencies are broadly distributed throughout industry, academia, and government and include the other laboratories of NIST. The laboratory's focus on atomic, molecular, optical, and ionizing radiation physics reflects the importance of these disciplines in developing new measurement technologies in anticipation of long-term needs of U.S. industry. For example, both past and present methods for standardizing length, frequency, and certain aspects of radiation follow from the increased refinement and sophistication in spectroscopic measurement techniques. To strengthen the connection between the performers of directed research and the industrial developers of advanced technologies, scientists in the laboratory work with various industries and other laboratories of NIST to develop new measurement technologies that can be applied to communications, defense, energy, environment, space, health, microelectronics, radiation, and transportation. These associations are facilitated by Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), industrial research associates (a new program), trade and professional committee participation, and consultations with numerous industries. The laboratory has identified four strategic areas where its experience and expertise can best contribute to the scientific community and immediate national needs by providing measurement methods, instrumentation, standards, and data: Electronic and magnetic devices—to develop innovative measurement methods and techniques of use to the electronics industry for device characterization and electronic information and communication; Optical technology—to provide the national basis for optical radiation measurement and to develop optical measurement systems for industrial and environmental needs;
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 Radiation applications and control—to support innovative, effective, and safe use of radiation by providing standards and measurement assurance services, developing and evaluating new radiation measurement methods, and providing critical data; and Fundamental physical quantities—to improve the definitions and physical realizations of base and derived International System of Units (SI) and to pursue opportunities for new determinations of fundamental physical constants. Resources The current total budget of the Physics Laboratory for fiscal year 1994 is $46.2 million, of which 64 percent, or $29.6 million, is congressionally appropriated money (NIST Scientific and Technical Research and Services, or STRS, funds). This budget is up about 9 percent from fiscal year 1993. About 24 percent of the budget comes from other agency (OA) support. The projected budget for fiscal year 1995 is up only incrementally to about $47 million. For fiscal year 1996, however, the projected budget will increase to $53 million, which will include additional funding for the laboratory to take the lead role internationally in new fundamental standards work. The current permanent staff in the laboratory is 271 (including 15 postdoctoral fellows), of whom 84 percent are scientific and engineering personnel. During fiscal year 1994, the laboratory is host to 145 guest researchers. About 75 percent of the professional scientific staff are physicists, 16 percent are chemists, and 9 percent are engineers. Technicians account for 6 percent of the total staff, 8 percent are clerical, and 2 percent are administrative. Assessment of Strategy The Physics Laboratory is organized into eight divisions: Electron and Optical Physics, Atomic Physics, Molecular Physics, Radiometric Physics, Quantum Metrology, Ionizing Radiation, Time and Frequency, and Quantum Physics. The last two of these divisions are located in Boulder, Colorado. The Quantum Physics Division is reviewed biennially (see attachment below). Three of the divisions, namely Radiometric Physics, Ionizing Radiation, and Time and Frequency, have a large service component responding to various industrial, public, and governmental needs. External and OA support is substantial, in the range of 60 percent of their budgets. The Office of Electronic Commerce in Scientific and Engineering Data is being established by the Physics Laboratory to increase the efficiency of electronic dissemination of databases. This organizational structure is reasonably efficient and functional in responding to national scientific and technological needs. Cross-divisional and interdisciplinary responses to these needs are common within the laboratory. The panel found the following areas in the Physics Laboratory to be of preeminent competence: time (the atomic clock: NIST-7); ion/atom cooling; surface magnetism; scanning tunneling microscopy (STM); laser physics and laser stabilization; vacuum ultraviolet radiometry and calibrations; infrared spectroradiometry; femtosecond molecular dynamics; atomic, molecular, and radiation data centers; radionuclide environmental radioactivity standards; neutron measurements and standards; and dosimetry of ionizing radiation.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 Currently, the laboratory has 110 industrial collaborations, about 25 supported by CRADAs. It maintains 6 data centers and provides 98 calibration services and 28 standard reference materials (SRMs) to industry. The panel considers these figures evidence that the laboratory's strategic plan is succeeding and will allow response to future technological changes. A number of facilities and groups in the Physics Laboratory provide critical services, data, materials, and calibrations to U.S. industries, other agencies, and institutions. In certain cases, they are largely supported by specific OA funding. When this funding is reduced or withdrawn, the ability of NIST to fulfill its responsibilities to its national clients is placed in jeopardy. Laboratory management must plan to assure the stable funding of such projects. With the increasing emphasis on NIST's role in providing services and technical assistance to U.S. industry, and with the increasing funding being provided by the government for this purpose, it is essential to develop various methods to assess the impact of this effort on the success and competitiveness of U.S. industry in future years. The panel suggests using the report Setting Priorities and Measuring Results at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, Gaithersburg, Md., January 1994) as a guide to documenting the Physics Laboratory's involvement with and impact on U.S. industry. As the projected budget of NIST increases in the next few years, management intends to replace OA funding with STRS funding, thus shifting the balance from the current 64 percent STRS support to 75 percent. As this shift in funding occurs, NIST management has decided to keep the number of permanent NIST staff capped at its current level. If the laboratory's budget grows while staff remains capped, greater alliances with university researchers might be appropriate. This is particularly important, since as the country shifts its scientific attention and public support away from military and defense applications toward commercial and civilian technologies, keeping the national scientific and engineering personnel resource pool at adequate levels could prove to be the decisive factor in ensuring U.S. strength in worldwide industrial competitiveness. Assessment of Technical Programs The breadth, effectiveness, and willingness of the scientific staff of the Physics Laboratory to help U.S. industry meet its competitive challenges are discussed in some detail in the technical assessments of the divisions. The panel was generally pleased with the laboratory 's technical programs, and descriptions of programs it found of particular note are given below. A CRADA has been established between the Oriel Corporation and NIST to collaborate on the characterization of pencil-type mercury discharge lamps. The results of this project will allow these inexpensive lamps to be used in applications that lacked low-cost, adequate standards for color and intensity. Such standards are critical in calibrating instruments that measure blood chemistry, lead levels in drinking water, and octane in gasoline. Several properties of these lamps will be addressed, including the spectrum of light emitted and the effect of temperature and lifetime on lamp performance. Facilities within the Physics Laboratory and the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) will be employed for this work. The Electron and Optical Physics Division has successfully demonstrated a new laser process to fabricate nanometer-size metallic structures on a surface. Experiments focused a beam of chromium atoms in a laser standing wave, which grazes across the surface of a silicon wafer.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 The nodes of the standing wave act as an array of atom lenses, focusing the chromium atoms into a series of lines as they deposit onto the surface. The lines are 34 nm high, 65 nm wide, and spaced 213 nm apart. Large arrays of structure could be fabricated by this method using a two-dimensional standing wave to make an array of quantum dots. Eventual applications include the fast and accurate fabrication of nanostructure devices for microelectronics and micromagnetics. This experiment also provides a direct means of transferring an optical wavelength standard to the dimensions of nanostructures. The Molecular Physics Division is collaborating in the search for environmentally acceptable alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Mixtures of hydrocarbons are being considered, which will allow tailoring of vapor pressure, lubricant solubility, and flammability ranges. Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures have properties that are strongly correlated to their permanent electric dipole moments, which are now listed in the NIST Standard Reference Database 23, “NIST Refrigerant Properties Data Base.” High-resolution rotational spectroscopy to determine dipole moments and benchmark modeling calculations are being carried out on two families of fluorinated ethers in the Molecular Physics Division in collaboration with the Thermophysics Division (CSTL). The laboratory staff again received many awards and honors since the fiscal year 1993 assessment, including the 1993 Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award from the Health Physics Society, the 1993 Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Science Award, election to the presidency of the International Commission on Illumination, election to the vice-presidency of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology, the American Physical Society's Schawlow Prize, and the recognition of the atomic clock (NIST-7) as one of the year's 100 most significant achievements by the editors of Popular Science magazine. Recommendations The following are the panel's recommendations for the Physics Laboratory as a whole. The panel recommends that a comprehensive list of “at-risk” facilities or groups providing critical services, data, materials, and calibrations to industry and other organizations be compiled and internal STRS funding be provided on a priority basis to these projects to ensure their stable long-term support. Progress in this effort should be reported to the panel at its fiscal year 1995 assessment. The panel recommends that the Physics Laboratory track the impact of a few selected ongoing services or collaborative activities with U.S. industries over the next 5 years. This tracking will involve the periodic accumulation of statistical, financial, and new-product-generation data. A summary of this activity should be part of the laboratory 's annual report, along with an expanded report on interactions with industry and the impact of these efforts. As funding increases but staff remains capped, the Physics Laboratory should consider alliances with U.S. universities to enhance NIST-connected new technology development with support of postdoctoral fellows and young faculty, both on-site at NIST and at their home universities.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 Physics Laboratory Responses to Fiscal Year 1993 Recommendations The panel is pleased with the laboratory director's written response to its fiscal year 1993 recommendations and with actions taken since its previous assessment. On the whole, the response to the panel's recommendations has been serious and responsible. Given below are some of the panel's fiscal year 1993 recommendations for the laboratory as a whole (quoted from the fiscal year 1993 assessment), with the Physics Laboratory's responses. “The panel recommends that the Physics Laboratory extend the ‘Advanced Algorithms, Software, and Applications' proposal to include the development of on-line visualization and a state-of-the-art physics computational center to support the database effort. This extension could have a major impact on NIST's general responsibilities to provide to industry such scientific and technical data as plasma radiation data and atomic energy level data” (p. 148). The Physics Laboratory has established an Office of Electronic Commerce in Scientific and Engineering Data to make scientific, engineering, and technical codes, standards, and regulatory data available to U.S. industry in a usable, accessible, and unified manner. “The panel recommends that the advanced optical technology initiative be pursued as a high-priority program, not only because it supports the mission of NIST and will strengthen NIST's ability to interface properly with its extramural Advanced Technology Program, but also because NIST is the only place in the United States where the necessary expertise exists in optical measurement and instrumentation techniques to significantly advance optical technology” (p. 148). The initiative on advanced optical technology was not included in the fiscal year 1995 budget. However, some of the projects are addressed in the NIST director's fiscal year 1996 initiative on measurements and standards for emerging instrumentation industries. Plans for an interlaboratory fiscal year 1997 initiative on photonics and optical technology are now under way. “The panel recommends that the laboratory's name be changed to the Physical Sciences and Technology Laboratory. This name would not only more accurately reflect the laboratory' s activities and responsibilities but also would be more in parallel with the names of other NIST laboratories” (p. 148). This recommendation, along with options for reorganizing the laboratory into fewer, more vertically integrated divisions, is still under heated discussion. DIVISIONAL ASSESSMENTS Electron and Optical Physics Division Mission The mission of the Electron and Optical Physics Division is to develop measurement capabilities needed by emerging electronic and optical technologies, particularly those required for submicrometer fabrication and analysis or for which absolute radiometric measurements are critical.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 Strategy The Electron and Optical Physics Division pursues two activities that have strong technical links but address different customer bases: development of basic measurement techniques and provision of calibration and measurement services. The ways these two activities are pursued are distinct. The service component is charged to continually improve the effectiveness with which it addresses customer needs. Its performance in this regard is judged by polling its customer base. With the exception of the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) III upgrade, programs have addressed needs for more accurate or reliable transfer standards or the needs of the SURF II user community or other specialized sectors such as the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics community; they have thus been formulated as appropriate technical responses to needs that the division has been able to identify on the basis of close and regular interaction. For the SURF III upgrade, the division is responding to the broadly stated priorities of the Council on Optical Radiation Measurement (CORM) and also to an internal NIST impetus to transform the basis of absolute radiometry from the EUV through the infrared spectral region. The division is looking well ahead of immediate customer requirements and is to some extent also trying to make advances in basic measurement methodology. The basic goals of the SURF III upgrade are to provide the absolute accuracy called for by CORM. Resources Fiscal year 1994 funding for the Electron and Optical Physics Division is estimated at $6.2 million, of which $5.0 million is from STRS. The division has 29 technical staff and 3 postdoctoral fellows and was host to 17 guest researchers during fiscal year 1993. Assessment of Strategy Developments in modern, high-technology industry continue to realize devices at everdecreasing length scales. Characterization, quality control, and even production demand measurement at the same scale. Industrial competitiveness requires measurement techniques at the next smallest length scale. The strategic plan of the Electron and Optical Physics Division addresses the challenge of measurement at the next smallest size. The focus on EUV optics (through SURF and through the nanodetector) targets vital needs in the development of appropriate optical elements and detectors in this region. Magnetic imaging and surface characterization and fabrication programs target vital needs in the search for ever better and smaller nanostructures. Both are combined in the proposed plan in such a way as to offer much needed current measurement resources and provide for future needs.
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 Assessment of Technical Programs Far Ultraviolet Physics Group. The planned upgrade of the SURF II electron storage ring capitalizes on the unique strength of the facility and its accurately definable character of radiation and provides for major improvements and extensions of the use of SURF as an absolute radiometric source. The generation of photons at higher energies, particularly in the water window, opens up new possibilities for microscopy when combined with the newly developed EUV microscope. At the same time, these changes will preserve and even improve the role that SURF has traditionally played as a calibration source for detectors and a general user facility for research groups from around the country. SURF has long served as the national basis for radiometry in the 5- to 200-nm spectral region. The planned upgrade will achieve two very important goals. First, it will improve the accuracy of existing calibrations by an order of magnitude within this region, reaching as low as 0.1 percent. Second, and even more basic, it will extend the range over which calibrations can be performed, down to 2.4 nm through an increase in the energy of the electron beam and into the infrared through the better characterization of radiation in this region. The collaboration that is developing between this group and the Radiometric Physics Division to connect the SURF source to the cryogenic radiometer is particularly noteworthy because of its inherent possibilities. In the near term (about 3 years), the new SURF III should emerge as the basis of a unified radiometric scale from the infrared through the EUV. In the long term, an optical definition of temperature through SURF and the Planck relationship is also possible. These quantities are important to the industrial community and are discussed in more detail in the assessment of the Radiometric Physics Division. SURF has long had a service role in the calibration of instrumentation for the government and the industrial community. Both calibration beamlines are used on a regular basis. The new double-grating monochromator, which has been under development for several years to calibrate photodiodes for use as transfer standards, is now in routine use on one of these beamlines. The completion of this effort is very positive, as this is one of the primary activities of SURF that will benefit from the upgrade. The companion program in the development of new silicon photodiodes has also made significant advances since the fiscal year 1993 assessment. Other efforts on the beamlines around the SURF machine are proceeding steadily now that construction for the reflectometer beamline has been completed. There is now activity on the high-throughput toroidal grating monochromator, and interaction with researchers from U.S. universities has been very productive. These interactions might increase once the energy of the electron beam energy is increased to make more photons available at higher energy. It is important that these interactions be maintained, since they provide invaluable contact and exchange of information and experience. The panel views the director 's decision to maintain one option for a high-energy beamline as very encouraging. Electron Physics Group. The increased funding in the Electron Physics Group has been reflected in good productivity and exciting research. Highlights are given below. Chromium atoms focused by laser have been used to create periodic nanostructures on a surface. The high-quality lithographic specimens thus created and examined by means of atomic force microscopy have received considerable publicity and have been reproduced in internal, national, and international publications. The group has also measured spin-polarized electron
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 scattering from laser-excited chromium, including complete resolution of the chromium quantum states. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies have been expanded to encompass fundamental research and practical applications, including development of a low-temperature STM, studies of local structures, use of STM as a potentiometer, possible use of STM to study luminescence on the atomic scale, and development of a magnetized STM. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA), a technique pioneered and developed by this group, has been extended to new fundamental and practical applications in collaboration with Allied Signal. In particular, SEMPA is used to study defects in magnets, magnetic domains, and the performance of magnets. Work has progressed considerably in magnetic multilayers, particularly in understanding coupling mechanisms between ferromagnetic iron films separated by nonmagnetic materials such as gold, silver, or chromium. The details of the electronic structure of the spacer metals are clearly revealed in SEMPA experiments. Theoretical studies have also been performed on the geometrical properties of the Fermi surface of chromium and how it influences the behavior of chromium as a spacer in magnetic multilayers. Control of the growth of thin films at the single atomic layer level by molecular beam epitaxy and examination by reflection high-energy electron diffraction have shown some fascinating growth effects that indicate unexpectedly complicated behavior. Photon Physics Group. This group has the responsibility of maintaining the only existing high-photon energy reflectometer in the United States. The group provides an indispensable service to government, university, and industrial organizations involved in development and production of optical elements for use in the extreme ultraviolet and is working with several small firms that are developing optics for imaging of EUV radiation. Although the reflectometer was first developed in support of lithography, its actual use is much broader and affects all areas of imaging at the high-energy end of the optical spectrum. A current interest is the development of multilayer mirrors to provide high reflectivities at these high energies. The necessary measurements to determine the optical quality of a particular mirror to the necessary accuracy can be made only at this facility. Since the fiscal year 1993 assessment, the SURF beamline designated for this activity was completed, and it is now in full operation. The work is currently restricted by the small vacuum chamber for mounting optics, which limits the size of elements that can be measured. The chamber being built, however, should overcome this limitation; this new capability should be implemented in as expedient a manner as possible. A researcher's death has ended the collaboration on x-ray fluorescence studies; this collaboration was an outgrowth of involvement with a beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). In light of this and because this work is being vigorously pursued by others at the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley, this effort was redirected into the implementation of the new nanodetector, a unique soft x-ray microscope. The panel concurs with this action. Construction of the microscope is now virtually complete, and testing should begin soon. A number of directions have been proposed by the Photon Physics Group for possible extension of the nanodetector. These include the possibility of in situ characterization of thin films during the deposition process and biological imaging within the water window. These new possibilities are intimately connected with the new capabilities of SURF. Any one of the directions that the group suggests has potential, but it will be important to identify an area and make plans to pursue
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 development in that area. No matter what decision is made in this regard, it is important to note that the resolution of the nanodetector is currently limited by the ability to focus the secondary electrons; thus, research to find new photocathode materials that allow better imaging of secondary electrons is vital. Recommendations The following are the panel's recommendations for the Electron and Optical Physics Division. Careful scheduling and planning should be used to minimize the time in which the SURF ring is apart for insertion of new magnets and a vacuum chamber and for building two new beamlines for the radiometry activity. It is important for the Far Ultraviolet Physics Group to identify and plan directions in which to pursue extension of the SURF radiometer. Electron and Optical Physics Division Responses to Fiscal Year 1993 Recommendations Given below are some of the panel's fiscal year 1993 recommendations for the Electron and Optical Physics Division (quoted from the fiscal year 1993 assessment), with the division's responses. “The panel recommends additional emphasis on making the toroidal grating monochromator operational” (p. 148). The toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) on Beamline 8 has been in productive use by members of the Surface and Microanalysis Science Division of the CSTL. The other TGM at SURF II, which is on Beamline 1, is planned for use by that division, but installation of necessary end-station equipment has been delayed by difficulties in procurement and logistics. “As new synchrotron radiation facilities come on-line, the panel recommends that managers of the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) project elucidate the advantages that make SURF a unique measurement tool. In particular, future plans for SURF should capitalize on the unique advantages of the optical quality of SURF's radiation” (p. 148). A long-range plan for SURF II has been devised by the Electron and Optical Physics and Radiometric Physics Divisions, in consultation with the NIST deputy director. Its goal is to place SURF II at the core of an absolute radiometric system that represents the state of the art in sources and detectors. This plan provides a unified approach to existing NIST radiometric efforts and extends radiometric capabilities to regions of growing importance to industry and science. It is indeed predicated on the unique orbital properties of SURF II, which are being refined rather than altered. The NIST deputy director has allocated substantial funds for this project. “The panel recommends that long-range planning be undertaken for the Electron Physics Group” (p. 148). The Physics Laboratory as a whole has indeed increased its attention to long-
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 postdoctoral associates take industrial positions, and so the panel was surprised to find that those interviewed were seriously considering industrial positions as their ultimate career objective. Graduate Students. The three graduate students the panel interviewed were all satisfied with their thesis projects and supervisors at JILA. They did not share the concern about employment upon graduation that many graduate students at other institutions have recently voiced. The female graduate student interviewed observed that the attrition of females in science graduate schools is high generally and that the University of Colorado was no exception. In common with women in all of the groups the subpanel spoke to, however, she felt that the fellows and administration of JILA were very supportive. Staff. As the number of people in JILA has increased over the years, older staff members in particular have noted that the feeling of family has largely disappeared from JILA and that frequent personal contact with fellows has decreased, necessitating more formal channels for communication and greater awareness from the fellows of the need to inform staff of developments under consideration. Greater concern for the career development of administrative and technical staff could increase their productivity and commitment to the institution. There are varying degrees of satisfaction with respect to the adequacy of the equipment provided for staff. Nevertheless, there was universal agreement from all interviewed that the JILA staff continues to do an exceptional job. Technical Programs Fundamental and Precision Measurements Group. This group is involved in high-precision measurements and metrology, particularly involving lasers, time measurement, and gravitational measurements. Several of the techniques used or being developed in this group could prove useful to U.S. industry. Several of the group's precision experiments are currently limited by vibration; active servo control systems under development by the group to provide greatly reduced vibration, particularly at frequencies around 1 Hz, have enormous potential applications. For example, these techniques could achieve and maintain the desired geometry of large space structures, like reflectors for power relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Techniques for measuring and reducing small accelerations at low frequencies can be used for vibration isolation in equipment to manufacture and characterize semiconductor devices and to remove limitations in position measurements applied to small separations between individual elements of complex semiconductor devices. Other recent work may lead to the development and application of transportable phase stable lasers with very high spectral purity, tunability, and low cost for intercomparison of optical frequency standards for optical frequency clocks. NIST's automated computer time service uses the telephone system for automated setting of clocks in digital systems to achieve millisecondlevel synchronization as synchronization standards for telecommunications systems. Workshops for industry on time and frequency and synchronization standards are well attended and indicate the interest of industry in subjects tailored to meet their near-term and practical needs. A
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 CRADA was executed between NIST and Micro-g for JILA to develop a free-fall absolute gravimeter, the JILA FG-5, with consulting assistance provided by JILA staff. Work leading to a high-sensitivity geophysical bore-hole tiltmeter with stability of calibration over several years will aid in earthquake hazard reductions. A JILA fellow consulted for GEO Research Institute on a contract with Allied Signal Corporation to develop the bore-hole gravimeter. The gravity wave-driven technology required an active isolation system that could be of value to small-scale lithography and other manufacturing processes. A long-period spring system developed as part of a JILA student's doctoral thesis is applicable to seismic signals that require a large response below resonance to achieve high sensitivity and is the subject of a patent application. These examples show that technologies developed at JILA are relevant to industry and that significant benefits could come from industrial collaborations. Atomic and Molecular Collisions Group. The Atomic and Molecular Collisions Group has traditionally been a strong component of JILA, which has been a world leader in the study of atomic and molecular collisions. Recent theoretical progress relating to quantum optics has been particularly outstanding; however, there is considerable cause for concern about the future of this effort. Of the 10 fellows who were interviewed, 3 have already retired, 1 has left JILA to take up a new position within NIST, and another is expected to leave within the next 12 months. Because of the continued participation in research by the retired fellows, there has as yet been no diminution in the quality or quantity of the research output; however, continuation of this excellent record and the symbiotic relationship between theory and experiment in this area will be jeopardized unless careful attention is given to restaffing this group. A great strength of JILA's Atomic and Molecular Collisions Group has been the interaction between experimentalists and theorists. The subpanel was pleased to see that this complementarity has been maintained and found many examples of progress on difficult problems that had used this interaction. The efforts on time-delayed spectroscopy of two-level systems, cone emission, and four-wave mixing are examples. In studies of the basic properties of systems with two valence electrons, the importance of relativistic effects and electron correlation in both radiative and collision processes has been further elucidated in theoretical studies that are also closely linked to experimental efforts at JILA and elsewhere. This group of researchers has continued to exploit its unique experimental capabilities. Pioneering experiments in the measurement of the cross section for excitation in electron-ion collisions have been carried out for both singly and multiply charged ions. This program is discovering unexpected phenomena and providing valuable data for applied plasma physics programs. The researchers' combination of laser and discharge experience has led to valuable experiments on energy pooling reactions, through which collisions of pairs of excited atoms lead to processes which cannot occur if only one atom is excited. Further information on inelastic heavy particle collisions in the gas phase and on surfaces has come from careful diagnostic studies of hydrogen, nitrogen, and argon discharges. Interaction between the Atomic Physics Program and the Optical Physics Program has been especially fruitful in the 2 years since the subpanel 's previous assessment. Studies of the behavior of atoms in strong laser fields have led to increased understanding of the interference between one- and two-photon processes. Improved models of four-wave mixing and harmonic generation have led to additional flexibility in modifying the frequency of laser light. Study of laser-induced energy transfer has provided new understanding of atom-molecule collision
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 mechanisms and is paving the way for development of techniques for laser-controlled chemical processing. Experiments and calculations on collisions in particle traps are revealing new phenomena and are important in the development of improved techniques for laser cooling, a process whose fundamentals are being studied theoretically using a new quantum Monte Carlo technique. JILA atomic physics researchers have played a leading role in assembling and expanding the atomic database for the magnetic fusion program. In recent years, this effort has been focused on the processes that occur in the relatively cool regions of the plasma near the diverters and limiters. Plasmas are being used widely in industry in semiconductor manufacturing and surface engineering. JILA's atomic and molecular orbital theory researchers have led work in the analysis of the silane plasmas that are used in the deposition of amorphous silicon for solar panels, flat-panel displays, and other semiconductor applications. Several innovative JILA projects have addressed critical issues in plasma-surface interactions. This group of researchers has also demonstrated that hyperthermal beams of chlorine lead to enhanced etching of silicon without substrate heating, determined the surface properties of amorphous silicon produced through plasma-aided deposition, and shown that scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to create silicon nanocolumns as well as to probe surface structure, which could lead to efficient electron sources in field-emission diode arrays. In view of the increased interest in industrial applications of low-temperature plasmas and the shift of many plasma physicists' attention from fusion to plasma processing, it is unfortunate that the gas discharge research at JILA is shrinking, since such research can make substantial contributions to the microelectronics and lighting industries. The JILA parity nonconservation experiments touch on many technical areas, are at the heart of atomic physics, and address one of the most fundamental questions in particle physics. The exceptional progress and quality of the JILA measurements have been well recognized, as evidenced by the recently bestowed Davisson-Germer Prize and E.O. Lawrence Award for this work. Clearly these measurements should continue, since substantial improvements can still be made; recent experimental improvements should result in a new series of measurements with an error of less than 5 parts in 1,000. Calculational efforts are also in place to determine the relevant atomic matrix element to better than the current error of 1 percent. Different isotopes of cesium are also in use to eliminate an imprecisely known matrix element from some important comparisons. The quest for the elusive goal of Bose-Einstein condensation has now shifted from hydrogen to heavier atoms, where a host of new trapping and cooling techniques can be used. The JILA approach uses low densities, much lower temperatures, and low-cost apparatus relative to those needed for hydrogen work. Many of the techniques involved have been developed and perfected at JILA, and so maximum expertise is being brought to this problem. Several unique ideas are involved in this attempt, and two JILA groups are following somewhat different paths toward this goal. The work is first rate and addresses a most fundamental problem. A group of researchers at JILA is attempting to extend the techniques of laser cooling, developed originally for gas-phase experiments, into the solid state. Using GaAs wafers that could be mass-produced and solid-state diode lasers such as are found in compact disk players, they hope to achieve a fraction-of-a-watt cooling at temperatures below 100 K. This type of vibration-free refrigeration could overcome a major barrier to commercialization of high-
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 temperature superconducting devices and infrared monitors for industrial and environmental sensing. JILA's excellent work on photorefractive materials has completely changed the perception of these materials from that of “black magic” to an understandable medium. This transition resulted from profound JILA theoretical work coupled with experimental demonstrations of the effects involved. The 1994 R.W. Wood Prize was awarded for this accomplishment. The distinctive differences between Kerr-type and photorefractive materials are now precisely understood. Based on the complete theory, new applications of photorefractive materials can now be confidently proposed, demonstrated, modeled, and made available for use. Chemical Physics Group. The Chemical Physics Group comprises first-rate scientists whose creativity, productivity, and impact are clear. Their work covers diverse aspects of chemical physics that relate closely to the mission of JILA. The group's research ranges from studies of small-molecule structure and dynamics, to studies of clusters, to interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces. The researchers are well integrated with related research efforts at JILA, sharing interests with the Atomic and Optical Physics, Fundamental and Precision Measurements, and Astrophysics Measurements Groups. The group is lively and vigorous, moving into new areas as scientific opportunities arise. The group's fundamental studies of the structure and energetics of reactive species using photoelectron spectroscopy provide important new data on bond strengths, which have a direct impact on the modeling of complex reaction systems like combustion. These studies also provide new information about the energetics of triplet states that are otherwise inaccessible. The group has a vigorous program studying the structure and dynamics of large and small clusters. Its combination of pulsed jets and high-resolution lasers has produced some of the most detailed data available on the structure and vibrational predissociation dynamics of small clusters. In many cases, these measurements push both scientific and technological frontiers. The group's study of large ion clusters using molecular beam and ultrafast laser techniques provides new information on dynamics in these special systems in which an ion behaves as if it were in a liquid, providing a model system for the onset of condensed phase behavior. Other applications of these high-resolution spectroscopic techniques include the investigation of the dynamics of bimolecular reactions. In one set of experiments, a high-resolution infrared laser is used to detect products of reactions of photolytically generated chlorine atoms with molecules such as HCl, H2O, and CH4. The resolution and tunability of the infrared source allow a detailed determination of the population of various quantum states of the reaction product and simultaneously determine its recoil speed and direction from the Doppler profile of the absorption lines. The development of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator promises to carry these experiments into new regimes via this very narrow bandwidth and broadly tunable light. Other work in the Chemical Physics Group studies a broad range of important aspects of chemical reactions, including ion-molecule reactions, the orientation of ions in collision, the reaction dynamics of aligned atoms and molecules, the redistribution of energy in collisions, and the disposal of energy in chemical reactions. The group's work on the interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces probes several types of interactions, with a particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces. One important advance is the development of a source of translationally energized chlorine atoms for investigating interactions with surfaces and reactive collisions with molecules. This work has also
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 proven to be an ionization technique for probing atoms and clusters above semiconductor surfaces during reactive etching. A series of theoretical efforts by visitors and permanent fellows enhances these experimental efforts. Calculations within the group on collisional energy transfer rates, the vibrational state structure in molecules, the vibrational predissociation rates of small clusters, and the dynamics of large clusters all tie closely to these measurements at JILA. Astrophysical Measurements Group. JILA researchers have played a key role in the international Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) and in the design of the complementary SOHO satellite mission, which is to be launched in a few years by the European Space Agency. The objective of this program is to monitor the motions of the Sun's surface accurately to infer the structure of the Sun's interior. Knowledge of this structure is essential for understanding the transport of energy, angular momentum, and magnetic fields in the Sun and other late-type stars. The interpretation of the GONG and SOHO observations will require sophisticated theoretical modeling, and JILA scientists are making significant advances in the underlying theory of convective transport in the Sun. Simulations of convection on large scales have been carried out on a massively parallel computer. Such simulations serve to both push the technology of massively parallel computers and add to our understanding of complex physical phenomena such as convection. A consequence of convection in the Sun is the formation of strong magnetic fields (more than 1,000 times the strength of the Earth 's) in the solar atmosphere and corona. By virtue of a recent appointment, JILA is now in a position to contribute to our understanding of these processes. Problems that have been addressed recently include the evolution of magnetic field structures from an equilibrium state to a nonequilibrium state as the field is twisted by the convective motions and the determination of the energy spectrum of the particles that are accelerated as a result of this process. Magnetic fields play a central role in the interstellar medium as well as in the Sun. JILA scientists are elucidating the effects of magnetic fields in the interstellar medium, particularly on the structure of molecular clouds. These clouds, which are the birthplaces of stars, have masses up to several million times that of the Sun and are supported against the pull of gravity by static and turbulent magnetic fields as well as by turbulent motions. By modeling these turbulent motions as a superposition of waves, JILA scientists have shown that it is possible to determine how the energy is distributed throughout the cloud and how the cloud would respond to an increase in the pressure of the surrounding medium. JILA scientists are widely recognized for their work on cool stars such as the Sun. Although most of a star's energy is emitted in thermal, optical, and infrared radiation, a small fraction is emitted as ultraviolet emission lines and nonthermal radio emission, which are indicative of activity on the star's surface. In the case of the Sun, this activity is associated with sunspots, solar flares, and small fluctuations in the solar luminosity. Because of climatological implications, it is of great importance to increase our understanding of stellar activity. JILA scientists pioneered the use of the Very Large Array for radio observations of cool stars, and they have been among the most successful users of the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite for studies of these stars. A recent observation of the nearby cool star Capella with the Hubble Space Telescope has attracted great attention; despite the spherical aberration that plagued the telescope until recently, it was possible to obtain a spectrum of such sensitivity that the abundance of deuterium in the local interstellar medium could be measured with greater accuracy than was
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 possible before. Deuterium is a relic of the Big Bang, and its abundance indicates the density of baryons in the universe. This new measurement confirmed previous measurements that imply that the amount of visible matter in the universe is too small to reverse its expansion. JILA scientists have a very strong group working in the area of massive star formation and evolution. Massive stars—those of spectral types O and B—evolve rapidly and are therefore found clustered in OB associations near their birthplaces. Current research at JILA has determined the relative birthrate of these stars as a function of mass within the nearby galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), revealing evidence that the initial mass function differs from its form in our own galaxy. Such studies have important consequences for theories of star formation and the appearance of galaxies undergoing rapid bursts of star formation, the so-called starburst galaxies. Recently completed work on the extended environments of OB associations has revealed evidence for large-scale bubbles blown in the immediate vicinity of young associations by the combined radiation and stellar wind pressure of the newly formed stars. Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars are thought to be the evolutionary end-points for the most massive stars. JILA scientists have led the study of W-R stars for decades. They have recently shown that the “Baldwin Effect,” an inverse correlation between the equivalent width of a carbon emission line and the underlying continuum radiation, seen in quasistellar objects and some Seyfert galaxies, is also seen in some W-R stars. The correlation can be used to deduce the source 's luminosity and hence its distance. W-R stars may also prove a testbed for understanding the origin of the effect itself. The 1987 supernova explosion in the LMC presented astronomers with a nearby example of one of the most energetic events in stellar astronomy. The JILA theory group has taken an active role in interpreting the observations and drawing the conclusions of many other studies together in the form of a major review paper on the supernova. The JILA group has also worked intensively on the interpretation of the optical spectra from the event. They have shown that soon after the explosion, the combined heating of radioactive Fe, Co, and Ni resulted in the formation of low-density “nickel bubbles.” They have also shown that 2 or more years after the explosion, the radioactive decay can no longer explain the observed luminosity; an additional energy source is needed. They conclude that the most likely source of this additional energy is emission from the metastable He in the dense clumps. Industrial Interactions Embedded in JILA's ongoing work are advanced capabilities and activities that can have significant benefits to industry if the methodologies, instrumentation, and experimental and analytical procedures are suitably translated or adapted to industry's needs. Potential applications include metrology and active control to maintain the desired geometry of large space structures, active vibration isolation techniques for high-precision manufacturing equipment such as submicron lithography, and transportable phase-stable lasers for the intercomparison of optical frequency and length standards. Cognizant of the changing role of NIST, the subpanel recommended in its fiscal year 1992 assessment that JILA fellows increase the level of “meaningful scientific interactions with industrial scientists ” (p. 178). Unfortunately, as detailed below in “JILA Responses to Fiscal Year 1992 Recommendations,” the University of Colorado review gave a contradictory
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 recommendation and JILA management did not begin to immediately carry out a policy to stimulate industrial interaction. In addition, legal issues have in some instances complicated, and thereby discouraged, some interactions. Most of the specific industrial interactions that occurred resulted entirely from the initiatives of individuals. Recent efforts by JILA management to stimulate and foster interactions with industry, detailed below, appear well thought out and will likely increase the number and impact of such interactions. Judged against this background, JILA's past and current activities in this area are to be commended. Operationally, the changing climate is best illustrated by the various CRADAs presented to the subpanel that have already been established or are in process. These agreements provide an excellent, flexible mechanism for interactions between government and industry. The subpanel commends JILA fellows already pursuing these opportunities. Other opportunities will undoubtedly arise to create additional CRADAs, and the subpanel encourages efforts by NIST management to facilitate this process. Following are some examples of individual interactions with industry in addition to CRADAs. As mentioned above, the Gas Research Institute arranged with NIST for the consulting services of a JILA fellow on a contract with Allied Signal Corporation to develop a bore-hole gravimeter. Newly developed technologies including atom interferometers, zero-length springs, and a vibrating quartz beam are being considered for this application. Such an instrument is intended for use in petroleum exploration. In collaboration with other institutions, JILA scientists are involved in a project to numerically simulate the processes of three-dimensional turbulence over a broad dynamic range of spatial scales. Currently, such calculations are at the edge of what is tractable with the largest vector supercomputers or massively parallel machines. Project staff members have established close working relations with a number of computer firms developing massively parallel machines, including Thinking Machines, Kendall Square, Intel, and Silicon Graphics. Collaboration has provided these companies with codes sufficiently challenging to test their machines and with a range of monitoring and performance assessment tools that have pinpointed critical or potential bottlenecks in the high-performance machine designs. In addition, the collaboration with Silicon Graphics involved assembling on its manufacturing floor a unique array of 20-processor Challenge XL machines in a three-dimensional torus and testing them for 1 month, a collaboration that is scheduled to continue. Historically, NIST (and previously NBS) has played an important role in the collection, critical evaluation, and publication of scientific data. Part of this activity was initiated at JILA, focusing on collision cross sections and related data. This aspect of JILA's work, and similar work throughout NIST, lacks glamour but is a key element in the promotion of science and technology. It is particularly valuable to industry, where often the data user is unfamiliar with the field and may not have easy access to the literature. NIST's increasing commitment to serving industry should embrace this existing activity and ensure its vigor with adequate funding. In JILA's case, the data center staff consists of the director and a full-time assistant. Addition of a full- or part-time programmer would allow the director to concentrate on new projects and could significantly enhance the center's overall productivity. The JILA Visiting Fellows Program, supported by NIST, has a worldwide reputation for excellence. It has allowed hundreds of scientists to benefit for useful periods from the facilities and personal interactions available at JILA. Most visiting fellows have come from academia,
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 usually on sabbatical leave, which allows them to stay the requisite period of 6 to 12 months. This constraint of at least a 6-month stay has probably contributed to the relative dearth of visitors from industry. In recognition of this problem, JILA is instituting a new component to the Visiting Fellows Program. Some of the program's funds will be used to host a series of industrial fellows, for a shorter period left partly to the visitor's discretion. The subpanel commends JILA for this initiative. A former director of research and development at IBM has stated that the transfer of technically trained people is by far the best means of technology transfer to and within industry. From this perspective, the NIST component at JILA has been very successful at transferring cutting-edge technology to industry and other government laboratories: 40 percent of the recent postdoctoral associates and 54 percent of recent graduate students are now employed at such institutions. An important component of JILA's current effort to improve its involvement with industry is the creation of a new staff position with direct responsibility for promoting industrial interactions. The holder will spend approximately 40 percent of his or her time on these duties (see below, “JILA Responses to Fiscal Year 1992 Recommendations”). Recommendations The following are the subpanel's recommendations for JILA. JILA should continue to develop plans and strategies to help U.S. industrial competitiveness, particularly in the long term. The subpanel found this appropriate in view of the national interest as well as the new emphasis on economic impact in NIST and in federal funding of scientific research generally. The Quantum Physics Department should develop an improved program to better focus its technical and scientific capabilities to benefit U.S. industry. The subpanel recommends that consideration be given to the following: (1) metrics of effectiveness of industrial interactions, e.g., CRADAs, patents, invitations to consult or to attend relevant meetings, or service on national or international standards committees; (2) active outreach, such as hosting seminars, schools, and meetings focusing on industrial problems and opportunities, and supplementing the Visiting Fellows Program to allow short-term visits from industry and visits of JILA fellows to industry; (3) broadening of JILA's reward structure to reward activities that have short- or long-term impacts on U.S. industry; (4) continued emphasis on long-range high-technology development and metrology projects; and (5) incorporation of elements of this QPD program into any similar plan for all of JILA, where this is agreeable to both parties, making this QPD program open to as much of JILA as possible. NIST management should provide appropriate leadership to promote further interaction of QPD and JILA fellows with U.S. industry. The subpanel recommends consideration of the following: (1) resources (e.g., multiyear grants) to support research groups of NIST and JILA fellows as they reorient toward greater service to industrial goals; (2) initiation of industrially oriented research by providing relevant infrastructure such as a fabrication
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 workshop for multilayer optical coatings and crystal cutting and polishing; and (3) professional rewards and recognition to fellows whose work is judged especially valuable to increasing the short-or long-range competitiveness of U.S. industry. While working to increase its industrial interactions, NIST management should assure continued opportunity for NIST investigators to find OA support for major portions of their research effort. NIST management must take greater initiative in maintaining contact with University of Colorado personnel who have management responsibility for JILA. An excellent vehicle for this would be consultations during the process of revising the QPD mission statement to reflect current NIST goals more accurately. JILA should encourage technical interactions of fellows, particularly the NIST fellows, with colleagues at Gaithersburg, Maryland, and other NIST facilities and should find resources for appropriate visits of sufficient length for meaningful collaboration. JILA should continue to identify and maintain informal contact with outstanding women and minority candidates for faculty appointments in fields of interest to the institute. In view of the lack of any NIST fellow in such a protected class, it would be desirable for NIST to make special efforts to attract and support such a candidate. The subpanel emphasizes as strongly as possible that all changes implemented in QPD must be carried out in a manner that maintains the ability of NIST and the University of Colorado to attract and retain world-class investigators in JILA. JILA Responses to Fiscal Year 1992 Recommendations The subpanel was favorably impressed with the responses of JILA to the previous recommendations; all were met with productive responses or at least satisfactory efforts. Given below are the subpanel's fiscal year 1992 recommendations for JILA (quoted from the fiscal year 1992 assessment), with JILA's responses. “JILA should set up a standing committee to identify on a continuing basis outstanding women and minority candidates for faculty appointments in fields of interest to the institute” (p. 176). The JILA conducted a thorough search for an outstanding faculty member or fellow in a protected class. The subpanel was disappointed that NIST was unable to make available the resources to support a new hire, and the search did not identify any candidates in the only area (optical physics) where an appointment rostered in a University of Colorado department was available. However, JILA was able to add a new fellow (she remains an APAS faculty member). “JILA should redouble efforts to recruit members of protected classes for graduate work and for its Visiting Fellows Program” (p. 177). JILA has done an excellent job, adding five
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An Assessment of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS: Fiscal Year 1994 protected-class fellows in the last 2 years. Progress in adding graduate students has been less dramatic, since they are admitted by the various departments and not by JILA directly. “Both human and space costs should be carefully considered whenever an increase in the number of JILA fellows groups is contemplated ” (p. 177). This recommendation was followed in two appointments, the only new appointments since the 1992 assessment. “The fellows should consider whether it is in the long-term interest of JILA to introduce limitations on the size of individual groups ” (p. 177). After discussing the matter at some length, the fellows, by a small margin, decided against drafting policies for size limitation. Policies have been established to limit space use by retired fellows and long-term visitors. The subpanel considered this a satisfactory response for the time being. “JILA fellows should consider methods by which meaningful scientific interactions with industrial scientists could be increased” (p. 178). This recommendation was counterbalanced by a contemporaneous recommendation by the University of Colorado review of JILA warning against industrial contacts that might detract form the basic research mission of JILA. The subpanel notes with displeasure the lack of any effort by NIST and JILA management to resolve this contradiction. The University of Colorado administration has appointed a new dean, who takes the position that industrial interactions are highly desirable. Also, NIST management has now made clear that emphasis on industrial interaction, arising from the 1988 revision of its mission, applies without exception to all divisions. The subpanel observes that JILA has responded commendably to this newly concerted leadership. It has organized meetings to collect ideas for stimulating such interactions, and a committee to implement these suggestions has been formed. A member of the JILA staff has been supported in studies to earn an MBA degree with an emphasis in technology transfer, and he is expected to play a major role in this evolving thrust area. A number of productive interactions with industry, including several CRADAs involving NIST fellows of JILA, have already occurred. Given earlier conflicting demands from NIST and the University of Colorado, the subpanel commends JILA for its vigorous and ongoing response to this challenging recommendation.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: