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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Titles Washington, D.C. 1980 National Research Council PATRICIA A.ROOS Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS OCCUPATIONS: Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences WORK, JOBS, AND A Critical Review of the Dictionary of Occupational Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis ANN R.MILLER DONALD J.TREIMAN PAMELA S.CAIN i

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ii original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sci- ences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of further- ing knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its Congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, non-profit, self-governing membership corpora- tion. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were estab- lished in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the Academy of Sciences. The material in this project was prepared under grant no. 21-11-77-35 from the Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, under the authority of Title III, Part B, of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973. Researchers undertaking such projects under government sponsorship are encouraged to express freely their professional judgment. There- fore, points of view or opinions stated in this document do not necessarily represent the official position or policy of the Department of Labor. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council. Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis. Work, Jobs, and Occupations. Bibliography: p. 1. United States. Employment Service. Dictionary of occupational titles. 2. United States— Occupations. 3. Occupations—Dictionaries. 4. Occupations—Classification. I. Miller, Ann Ratner. II. Title. HB2595.N37 1980 331.7•003 80–24653 ISBN 0-309-03093-5 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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iii original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS (Chairman),Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania ANN R.MILLER DAVID P.CAMPBELL, Vice President of Research and Programs, Center for Creative Leadership MARY DUNLAP,University of Texas School of Law G.FRANKLIN EDWARDS,Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Howard University RICHARD C.EDWARDS,Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts LEON FESTINGER,Department of Psychology, New School for Social Research GARY D.GOTTFREDSON,Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University JOHN A.HARTIGAN,Department of Statistics, Yale University DORIS P.HAYWOOD, Assistant Vice President,Human Resources, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. WESLEY R.LIEBTAG, Director of Personnel Programs,International Business Machines Corporation ROBERT E.B.LUCAS,Department of Economics, Boston University KAREN O.MASON,Population Studies Center, University of Michigan ERNEST J.McCORMICK (Professor Emeritus),Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University GUS TYLER, Assistant President,International Ladies Garment Workers Union STAFF DONALD J.TREIMAN, Study Director PAMELA S.CAIN, Research Associate HEIDI I.HARTMANN, Research Associate PATRICIA A.ROOS, Research Associate MONICA K.SINDING, Research Associate CHARLES F.TURNER, Research Associate JUNE PRICE, Research Assistant ROSE S.KAUFMAN, Administrative Secretary BENITA ANDERSON, Secretary

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CONTENTS v original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Contents PREFACE xix 1 INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Charge to the Committee 2 Organization of the Report 4 SUMMARY 4 Content and Structure of the DOT 4 Use of the DOT by the Employment Service 5 Use of the DOT Outside the Employment Service 6 The Occupational Analysis Program 7 Production of the Fourth Edition DOT 8 Assessment of the Occupational Information in the DOT 9 The Classification of Occupations for Job-Worker Matching 11 Conclusions and Recommendations 13 Data Collection Procedures 14 Measurement of Occupational Characteristics 14 Classification Issues 15

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CONTENTS vi original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Other Needed Research 15 Organizational and Administrative Issues 15 Supplementary Materials 16 2 THE FOURTH EDITION DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL 18 TITLES: STRUCTURE AND CONTENT OCCUPATIONAL TITLES 18 THE DOT CODE 19 INDUSTRY DESIGNATION 25 DEFINITIONS 25 ADDITIONAL FEATURES 27 RELATED PUBLICATIONS 27 SUMMARY 30 3 USE OF THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES BY 31 THE U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE USE OF THE DOT IN PLACEMENT AND COUNSELING 32 A Source of Occupational Information 32 Placement 33 Self-Referral 34 Interviewer Referral 34 Counseling 35 Evaluation of DOT Use 37 OTHER USES OF THE DOT 40 Testing 40 Labor Certification 42 SUMMARY 43

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CONTENTS vii original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 4 USE OF THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES 45 OUTSIDE THE U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE COLLECTING DATA ON DOT USES 46 Description of the Universe 46 Sampling Design 46 Probability Survey of DOT Purchasers 47 Interviews, Case Studies, and a Survey of Institutional 49 Users Survey of Researchers 50 Timetable of Survey Procedures 50 INSTITUTIONAL USES OF THE DOT: A SAMPLE OF 51 PURCHASERS How the DOT is Used 53 How Essential is the DOT? 57 Adequacy of the DOT 59 GOVERNMENT USES OF THE DOT 63 Interview Results 63 Employment Training and Production of Occupational 63 Information Disability Determination 68 Rehabilitation and Employment Counseling 70 Vocational and Occupational Education 72 Other Users of the DOT 74 Department of Defense 74 Office of Personnel Management 75 Development of the Standard Occupational Classifica- 76 tion Bureau of the Census 76 STATE GOVERNMENT USERS: THE SOICC GROUP 77 RESEARCH USES OF THE DOT 81 Classification 81 Job Titles and Definitions 82

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CONTENTS viii original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Worker Traits and Worker Functions 82 Data, People, and Things 82 Training Time 83 Other Worker Traits 84 Use of DOT Concepts in Other Scales and Classifications 84 Evaluation of DOT Data 86 USE AND DISTRIBUTION OF OTHER OCCUPATIONAL 87 ANALYSIS PRODUCTS Occupational Analysis Branch 88 Job Search Branch 89 SUMMARY 91 5 ORGANIZATION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS 93 PROGRAM OF THE U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE INTRODUCTION 93 THE OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS BRANCH 95 THE JOB SEARCH BRANCH 98 THE OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS FIELD CENTERS 100 Overview: Organization 101 Staffing and Organization of Work 103 Functional Specialization of the Field Centers 104 Major Field Center Activities 107 Production of the DOT 107 Career Guides and Brochures 108 Training and Technical Assistance 109 Special Projects 110 CONCLUSION 112

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CONTENTS ix original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 6 PROCEDURES USED TO PRODUCE THE FOURTH EDI- 114 TION DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 115 SAMPLING FOR THE DOT 115 Assignment of Industries to Field Centers 116 Establishment Selection 118 JOB ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 120 Staffing Schedule and Organization and Process Flow Charts 121 Job Analysis 124 Writing the Job Description and Assigning a DOT Code 126 Rating Worker Traits 132 Completing an Establishment Study 139 Modifications of Procedures 140 Definition Writing for the DOT 141 CONCLUSION 145 7 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPA- 148 TIONAL TITLES AS A SOURCE OF OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION INTRODUCTION 148 SAMPLING PROCEDURES 149 SOURCE DATA 155 RATINGS OF WORKER FUNCTIONS AND WORKER 164 TRAITS Validity 164 Reliability 168 OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 173 The Factor Structure 176 Sex Bias in the Rating of Occupations 188 CONCLUSION 191

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CONTENTS x original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 8 THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS: A REVIEW OF 196 SELECTED SYSTEMS THE CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE OF THE DOT 196 Creating Occupational Titles 197 Grouping Occupations 198 The DOT Code: The First Three Digits 199 The DOT Code: The Second Three Digits 200 Summary 201 The Keyword System of the Employment Service 201 EXISTING ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATIONS FOR JOB- 201 WORKER MATCHING Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment 203 Holland Classification of Careers 204 Summary 206 A MOBILITY-BASED APPROACH TO JOB-WORKER 206 MATCHING Advantages and Disadvantages 208 STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING OCCUPATIONAL 210 CLASSIFICATION FOR JOB-WORKER MATCHING Other Methodologies 210 A Research Program for Developing Classifications 211 CONCLUSION 212 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 214 CONCLUSIONS 214 Dictionary 215 Classification 216 Occupational Characteristics 216 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 217

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CONTENTS xi original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS 220 Data Collection Procedures 220 Measurement of Occupational Characteristics 224 Classification Issues 226 Other Needed Research 229 Organizational and Administrative Issues 231 APPENDIXES 235 A MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USER SURVEY 237 B SITE VISITS TO SELECTED FEDERAL USERS OF THE 250 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Patricia A.Roos BUREAU OF APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING 250 Using the DOT to Evaluate the Apprenticeability of 251 Occupations Adequacy of the DOT 253 BUREAU OF DISABILITY INSURANCE 254 Using the DOT to Determine Disability Awards 255 Adequacy of the DOT 257 VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 258 Using the DOT in Counseling and Rehabilitation 258 Adequacy of the DOT 260 C ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH USES OF 262 THE Dictionary of Occupational Titles, June Price D SELECTED MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE DIVISION 305 OF OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS, U.S. EMPLOY- MENT SERVICE PUBLICATIONS OF THE DIVISION OF OCCUPA- 305 TIONAL ANALYSIS SINCE 1965 National Office: Division of Occupational Analysis 305 Serial Publications 307 California Occupational Analysis Field Center 307

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CONTENTS xii original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Michigan Occupational Analysis Field Center 308 Missouri Occupational Analysis Field Center 309 New York Occupational Analysis Field Center 311 North Carolina Occupational Analysis Field Center 312 Texas Occupational Analysis Field Center 312 Utah Occupational Analysis Field Center 312 Washington Occupational Analysis Field Center 313 Wisconsin Occupational Analysis Field Center 313 E THE RATING OF DOT WORKER FUNCTIONS AND 315 WORKER TRAITS, Pamela S.Cain and Bert F.Green, Jr. STUDY DESIGN 316 RESULTS 319 TECHNICAL NOTE 329 F DOT SCALES FOR THE 1970 CENSUS CLASSIFICATION, 336 Patricia A.Roos and Donald J.Treiman CENSUS SCORES FOR EIGHT DOT VARIABLES 337 CENSUS SCORES FOR FOUR FACTOR-BASED 338 SCALES G USING COMPUTERS TO MATCH WORKERS AND 390 JOBS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE'S AUTOMATED MATCH- ING SYSTEM, Charles F.Turner AUTOMATION AND JOB-WORKER MATCHING IN 392 THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEMS 393 KEYWORDING: THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 395 MATCHING SYSTEM Description 396 Evaluating Keyword Matching 400 Use of Information 402 The Definition of Similarity 405 Adequacy of the Occupational Unit Division 406 Diversity of Computer Hardware and Languages 408 CONCLUSION 409

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xiv CONTENTS original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Tables 2-1 DOT Titles: Description and Frequency 20 4-1 Distribution of DOT Purchasers, by Type of Employer (N=309) 52 4-2 Distribution of DOT Purchasers, by Type of Work (N=307) 52 4-3 Percentage Distribution of DOT Purchasers Engaged in Various 54 Types of Work, by Type of Employer 4-4 Percentage of DOT Purchasers Using Component Parts of the 55 DOT, by Type of Work 4-5 Percentage of DOT Purchasers Who Would Experience Disrup- 56 tion of Work if DOT Were Discontinued, by Type of Work 4-6 Percentage of DOT Purchasers Who Use Other Occupational 60 Information, by Type of Work 4-7 Percentage Distribution of Judgments of Adequacy of the DOT 62 forMain Purpose 4-8 Percentage of DOT Purchasers Desiring Specified Improvement, 64 by Type of Work 4-9 Percentage Distribution of Type of Work, by Type of Employer, 78 SOICC Group 4-10 Percentage of SOICC Group Using Component Parts of the DOT, 80 by Type of Work 4-11 Percentage Using Other Occupational Analysis (OA) Products 90 6-1 Field Center Industry Assignments 117 6-2 Worker Trait Summary 132 6-3 Definition Writing Assignments 141

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xv CONTENTS original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. 7-1 Percentage Distribution of Establishments by SIC Industry Divi- 152 sion: Comparison of DOT Sample and U.S. Labor Force 7-2 Percentage Distribution of Establishments by Employment-Size 153 Class: Comparison of DOT Sample and U.S. Labor Force 7-3 Comparison of Percentage Distributions of DOT Titles and Labor 155 Force by DOT Occupational Categories 7-4 Percentage Distribution of DOT Titles by Major Group: The 157 DOT versus the Booz, Allen & Hamilton Sample 7-5 Percentage Distribution of DOT Titles by Number and Type of 158 Supporting Documentation 7-6 Percentage Distribution of Job Analysis Schedules by Selected 160 Characteristics for Selected Periods 7-7 Percentage Distribution of Job Analysis Schedules, by Selected 162 Characteristics and Type of Job 7-8 The DOT Occupational Characteristics, Fourth Edition 165 7-9 Reliability Estimates for Selected DOT Variables 170 7-10 Estimated Reliabilities, by Type of Occupation 172 7-11 Descriptive Statistics for Fourth Edition DOT Occupational Char- 174 acteristics 7-12 Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlation Coefficients for 178 DOT Variables 7-13 Factor Loadings: Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix 184 7-14 Factor Analysis of Fourth Edition DOT Occupational Characteris- 186 tics: Items and Loadings for Six Major Factors 7-15 Changes in the Scoring of DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS 192 Between the Third and Fourth Editions of the DOT E-1 Sources of Variation in Ratings of Occupational Characteristics 317 E-2 Complete Analysis of Variance for DATA 320 E-3 Complete Analysis of Variance for PEOPLE 321 E-4 Analysis of Variance Results: Degrees of Freedom and Mean 322 Squares E-5 Variance Components for Significant Effects and Estimated Reli- 323 abilities E-6 Estimated Reliabilities, by Type of Occupation 327 E-7 Rater Consensus by Occupation: Proportion of Modal Responses 330 E-8 Correlation of Raters With the Average of All Other Raters, 332 AcrossOccupations by Job Description Set F-1 Worker Function and Selected Worker Trait Scores for 1970 U.S. 340 Census Occupational Categories

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xvii CONTENTS original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Figures 2-1 Parts of the DOT code 21 2-2 Definitions of the worker function scales represented in the fourth, 22 fifth, and sixth digits of the DOT code 2-3 Examples of the four categories of information as the basis of the 26 DOT definition 2-4 Parts of a DOT definition 28 4-1 Distribution of the fourth edition Dictionary of Occupational Titles 48 5-1 Organizational structure of the occupational analysis program 97 6-1 Staffing schedule 122 6-2 Job analysis schedule 127 6-3 Scale for general educational development (GED) 134 6-4 Scale for specific vocational preparation (SVP) 137 6-5 Aptitude factors and rating scale 138 6-6 Temperament factors 138 6-7 Interest factors 139 6-8 Worksheet for definition writing 142

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PREFACE xix original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Preface The division of labor—the deployment of human resources in the production of goods and services for society—has engaged the attention of social observers throughout recorded history. For most of this time a limited number of terms for describing traditional activities were sufficient to convey to all the nature of the work performed. But the increased complexity of the division of labor that accompanied what is commonly known as the industrial revolution altered the situation; and the proliferation of services that has become the mark of postindustrial society has continued to exacerbate the difficulty of comprehending the nature of the tasks included in a given occupational title. Moreover, the continuous impact of technological innovation has meant that the work content of a specific occupation may change dramatically although its title remains unaltered. Many years ago the compilers of the pioneer A Dictionary of Occupational Terms (Great Britain Ministry of Labour, 1927) observed that “[m]any industries are passing through a period of transition, so that the same occupational term may still be applied, for example, to handicraft workers, carrying through an entire series of manual operations, and to factory hands tending a machine and working under conditions of high specialisation.” Their example may be less pertinent now than it was in the Britain of the 1920s, but the problem they refer to remains as critical as it was then. More than 100 years ago the U.S. Bureau of the Census began grouping occupational titles, which had previously been merely listed, in its publications in order to clarify the nature of the work performed.

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PREFACE xx original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Throughout this century the Census Bureau has published, as an integral part of each census, a classified index of occupational titles included in each of its published occupational units and has continued to group the units into broad occupational categories. But the Census Bureau has never attempted to provide descriptions of its categories or of its units. As chapter 1 notes, when the U.S. Employment Service was first established, it too relied on occupational titles for matching job seekers with jobs, but it was quickly apparent that the lack of standardized descriptions hindered the accomplishment of this task, and the compilation of the first American Dictionary of Occupational Titles began almost immediately. For the matching of workers and jobs in a system involving thousands of titles, however, it is clearly not enough merely to describe activities; it is also necessary to arrange the units defined in an order helpful in illuminating the relationship of the nature of the work in one unit to that in others. The resulting arrangement is, then, a classification system, organized according to certain principles, assumed or demonstrated, about key elements in the nature of work. These two components—the definition of units and their classification— compose a standard approach to the understanding of observed phenomena, a method by which large quantities of information have traditionally been reduced to manageable proportions. Recently, however, the development of the computer has introduced new ways of processing information and has raised questions about the continuing usefulness of the standard approach, at least for purposes of job placement. In 1977 the U.S. Employment Service published a new edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), the latest in a series going back some 40 years. In planning the allocation of its resources for the 1980s, officials of the U.S. Employment Service decided that the publication of the new edition provided an appropriate occasion for evaluating the program underlying the DOT. Specifically, they requested the National Academy of Sciences to review whether “computerization” obviated the need for such a document in the operations of the Employment Service; whether there was a wider need for the information provided; and whether, if the program and its products were continued, the current procedures and assumptions were adequate or required substantial revision. The Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis was established by the National Research Council's Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences to respond to this request. This report presents the results of the committee's investigation and the recommendations that arose from our deliberations. The committee was very fortunate in being able to persuade Donald J. Treiman to take leave from the University of California, Los Angeles, in

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PREFACE xxi original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. order to be our study director. He supervised and coordinated the project, made major substantive contributions to the analytic design of the study, and contributed significantly to the writing throughout the report. Treiman assembled a very competent staff, to all of whom we are indebted. The committee was simultaneously conducting a study for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, so there was some division of labor between the two tasks, but all staff members participated actively in the discussions and reviews of successive drafts of the report. Pamela S. Cain had primary responsibility for assembling the material on the procedures used in creating the DOT and the evaluation of these procedures. Patricia A.Roos was responsible for conducting the user surveys and analyzing the results, for describing the use of the DOT within the Employment Service (a task to which Charles Turner also contributed), and for preparing the materials on the use of the DOT by other government agencies (a task to which Monica K.Sinding also contributed). Charles F.Turner prepared preliminary analyses of data on labor mobility, which served as the basis for discussion of the DOT classification system. Heidi I.Hartmann contributed to the writing and revision efforts at many points in the report, particularly the sections on classification and on the organization of the occupational analysis program. June Price prepared materials on the research uses of the DOT. The committee's thanks also go to Eugenia Grohman for her advice and to Christine L.McShane for her excellent editing of the final draft. Our administrative secretary, Rose S.Kaufman, with the help of Benita Anderson, performed crucial services in preparing the manuscripts and in arranging our meetings with efficiency and dispatch. All members of the committee reviewed the numerous drafts of the report. Gary D.Gottfredson and John A.Hartigan were particularly helpful in their contributions to the material on classification. Ernest J. McCormick's long experience with the issues involved in job analysis and job placement was invaluable to our discussions. ANN R.MILLER, Chair Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis

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