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Annotated Bibliography of C Research Uses of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles JUNE PRICE Algra, Cecelia 1978 Meeting the challenge of a minimum reading graduation requirement. Journal of Reading 21(February):392-397. This article describes the development of a minimum reading requirement for high school graduation, with tests based on comprehension and validated within the working community. Occupations that are classified as being above the menial level in the DOT and that require some reading ability were studied to set a reading criterion for successful employment at the entry level. Anderson, Harry E., Jr., S. Larry Roush, and Jack E. McClary 1973 Relationships among ratings, production, efficiency, and the General Aptitude Test Battery scales in an industrial setting. Journal of Applied Psychology 58 (August):77-82. The GATB assesses worker aptitudes that relate directly to the DOT'S worker trait aptitude scales. In this study, relationships among GATB scales, job-related behavior (supervisor's ratings), and actual production and efficiency rates were examined for 76 coil winders in an overhead distribution transformer plant. In terms of published strategies applied in selection and placement activities, the use of the GATB was found to be deficient in several respects. The correlations between the GATB scales and the rating, production, and efficiency variables were found to be low to insignificant, including more than one third that were negative. These results indicate a need for further evaluation of the GATB in industrial settings. Ashley, William L. 1977 Occupational Information Resources: A Catalog of Data Bases and Classification Schemes. Information Series No. 104. Columbus: Ohio State University, Center for Vocational Education. This catalogue seeks to provide a basic reference to existing data and to stimulate creative thinking regarding new ways of looking at occupational mobility and transfer. It was designed and compiled for the primary purpose of assisting 262

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 263 researchers in the study of factors related to occupational mobility and skill transfer within and between occupations. The catalogue consists of two major parts: section 1 contains the abstracts of the occupational data bases, and section 2 contains the abstracts of occupational classification schemes. Included in section 2 are abstracts and descriptions of the various sections of the third edition DOT, Volumes 1 and 2, as well as the General Aptitude Test Battery. Baer, Max F., and Edward C. Roeber 1951 Occupational Information. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc. Designed to serve as both a handbook for professional occupational guidance counselors and a textbook for the counselor in training, this book provides an overall picture of the country's occupational structure, reviews and provides a guide to occupational literature, and offers suggestions on the development of a library of occupational information. The authors describe the structure, content, and uses of the DOT and mention other systems of occupational classification that incorporate the DOT information. Barker, Donald G. 1969 Factor analysis of worker trait requirements. Journal of Employment Counseling 6(December): 162-168. Factor analysis of a sample of the 4,000 jobs listed in Estimates of Worker Trait Requirements for 4,000 Jobs as Defined in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, rated on 48 worker trait requirements, yielded nine interpretable orthogonal factors or patterns of employment qualifications: (1) technical, (2) clerical, (3) manipula^ five, (4) persuasive, (5) color discrimination (perhaps artistic), (6) administrative, (7) scientific, (8) social service, and (9) agility. Barker, Donald G. 1971 Color perception requirements of 4,000 jobs. Journal of Employment Counseling 8(March):26-30. Tabulation of the color discrimination requisites of a representative sample of jobs analyzed in the Estimates of Worker Trait Requirements for 4,000 Jobs revealed that the majority of jobs require little or no color perception aptitude. Only 2 percent of jobs require above average color discrimination. These occupations were listed by second and third edition DOT codes and titles for the use of counselors in the guidance of clients with defective color vision. Bemis, Stephen E., Robert L. Banner, Thomas F. Kearney, and Kathleen Goppold von Lobsdorf 1973 Development of a new Occupational Aptitude Pattern structure for the GATB. Vocational Guidance Quarterly 22(December):13~135. The General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) and the derived occupational aptitude patterns (OAP'S) are described. A lengthy analysis of the many Specific Aptitude Test Batteries that have been developed over the years produced 43 new tentative

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264 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS OAP'S. The difficulties in relating the two systems are discussed. Final developmen- tal work and the resulting OAP structure will be presented in a subsequent article (see Bemis et al., 1974~. Bemis, Stephen E., Robert L. Bonner, Thomas F. Kearney, and Kathleen Goppold van Lobsdorf 1974 The new Occupational Aptitude Pattern structure for the GATB. Vocational Guidance Quarterly 22(March): 1 89- 1 94. The authors describe their attempts at developing a rationale for relating occupational aptitude patterns (OAP'S) to the worker trait groups of the third edition DOT, toward organizing occupations within an OAP and adding related occupations. The OAP structure resulting from this research consists of 62 three- aptitude, multiple-hurdle patterns that incorporate 1,215 occupations. Each OAP consists of the most significant aptitudes and the critical scores on these aptitudes established as minimum scores for groups of occupations having similar aptitude requirements. Berg, Ivar 1970 Education and Jobs: The Great Training Robbery. New York: Praeger Publishers. Berg's analysis investigates the relation between education and employment, specifically the role of educational attainment in generating job opportunities. Of special concern is employers' use of educational requirements in determining job requirements. Using the GED ratings from the 1956 and 1966 worker trait analyses, Berg first translated the seven-level GED code to a generally accepted years-of- schooling equivalent. The 1956 and 1966 GED scores were then used as gross estimates of the educational requirements of the jobs held for the two census years, 1950 and 1960. These estimates of job requirements with respect to education were then compared with the achieved education of the labor force. The two dates made it possible to include the effects of changes in estimated requirements as well as in the distribution of people among jobs. Berg suggests that since achievements appear to have exceeded requirements in most job categories, it cannot be argued that technological and related changes attending most jobs account for the pattern whereby better educated employees are required and made use of by managers. Bjorkquist, David C. 1970 Technical education for the underemployed and unemployed. Vocational Guidance Quarterly 18(June):26~272. Two manpower development and training programs in the field of mechanical technology were compared. High school graduates with satisfactory General Aptitude Test Battery scores on intelligence, numerical, and spatial ability were enrolled in either a job-oriented or field-oriented program. Evaluation was based on achievement during training, social class identification, job responsibilities, job satisfaction, mobility, unemployment, employer ratings, and salaries. Job responsi- bilities were analyzed using the third edition DOT'S DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 265 scales. Results did not indicate the overall superiority of one training program to the other. Borgen, Fred H., David J. Weiss, Howard E. A. Tinsley, Rene V. Dawis, and Lloyd H. Lofquist 1972 Occupational Reinforcer Patterns. Volume 1. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology, Vocational Psychology Research. Occupational Reinforcer Patterns (ORP'S) for 81 occupations are presented alphabetically, using the third edition DOT titles. An ORP describes the stimulus conditions available in the work environment for the satisfaction of workers' needs. Satisfaction is predicted for those whose needs (as measured by the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire) correspond with the ORP for a given occupation; a discrepancy between needs and ORP'S iS likely to result in dissatisfaction. The ORP'S are based on the combined Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (MIDQ) ratings of supervisors of each occupation. Four types of information are presented: (1) a profile of occupational reinforcers, in graphic form, (2) a list of characteristics for each occupation, which are highly descriptive or moderately descriptive, (3) a listing of other occupations that have ORP profiles similar to a given occupation, and (4) summary statistics describing scale values and other information about the occupation (for ORP, Volume 2, see Rosen et al. (1972~. Brolin, Donn 1973 Vocational evaluation: Special education's responsibility. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded 8(February):12-17. Because many educable mentally retarded persons continue to lead marginal lives after school despite higher potentials, the author asserts that schools can and should provide more relevant, vocationally oriented programs to help eliminate the barriers encountered by the mentally retarded after they leave school. The components of a recommended vocational evaluation program for the schools are described. The third edition DOT iS cited as a valuable source for conducting job analyses, which is the first step in developing work and job samples. It is also a suggested reference for assessing occupational ability requirements and reinforcer systems. Broom, Leonard, Paul Duncan-Jones, F. Lancaster Jones, and Patrick McDonnell no Data, People and Things as Non-Vertical Aspects of Jobs: An Evaluation date and Modest Research Proposal. Unpublished paper, Australian National University, Canberra. Sociological analyses of occupational mobility have for the most part focused on "vertical" mobility (usually prestige, social standing, or socioeconomic class). The authors describe in detail the DOT'S worker traits and worker functions and suggest that they provide different kinds of variables that are equally important. They note that the use of the DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS scales in research has been limited by the incomparability of the DOT classification system with the census codes and their accompanying social statistics. In an effort to develop a tool for studying new

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266 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS aspects of mobility patterns, Broom et al. encoded the 1971 Australian Census Classification of Occupations (ACCO) into the DOT framework. An analysis of the relationship between the worker trait groups and worker functions in the DOT and those assigned to the ACCO revealed strong correlations between the two sets of DOT ratings and also verified the reliability of the authors' cross-coding. The article concludes with an outline for future research of occupational mobility patterns using this kind of data. Broom, Leonard, Paul Duncan-Jones, F. Lancaster Jones, and Patrick McDonnell 1977 Worker traits and worker functions in DOT. Journal of Vocational Behavior 1 l(October):253-261. This paper, a by-product of an extension of the DOT to the Australian Census Classification of Occupations, attempts to validate the worker function hierarchies in terms of the worker traits required by different jobs in the DOT. It shows empirically that the variation in worker traits across the occupations listed in the DOT iS closely reflected in the 197 worker function profiles, which have better research potential. Brown, Julius S. 1975 How many workers enjoy discretion on the job? Industrial Relations 14(May): 19~202. This study attempts to provide a rough estimate of the number of workers who hold jobs that permit discretion, the distribution of such jobs by race and sex, and the pay differentials associated with this variable. Jobs with a DATA or THINGS rating of less than 5 or a PEOPLE rating of less than 6 (according to the DOT) were assumed to be discretionary. The percentage of employed persons who hold discretionary jobs (55 percent) has not changed between 1950 and 1970. Blacks have made some progress over the years; there still is, however, a distortion in favor of whites. In 1970 as in 1950, 70 percent of women were employed in nondiscretionary jobs. Finally, wages for discretionary work have increased faster than for nondiscretionary work. Brown, Robert A., and Donald A. Pool 1974 Levels of expectation and aspiration in the brain injured. Journal of Clinical Psychology 30(January):5~53. This study examined the behavior of brain-injured subjects on an experimental arithmetic task. Brain-injured subjects were matched with a control group on age, education, and premorbid occupational level as classified by the third edition DOT. Subjects' reported level of expectation and level of aspiration were compared with actual performance on the task. There were no differences between the groups in discrepancy between performance and expectation; however, the control group was far superior to the brain-injured subjects in number of problems completed. In comparing recently brain-injured subjects with other brain-injured subjects, it was found that the recently brain-injured group was unrealistic in their aspirations and

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 267 also less adequately adjusted than either the other brain-injured group or the control group. Caston, Richard J. 1978 A New Global Index for Occupational Statuses. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association, San Francis- co, Calif., September. Caston argues that the use of Duncan's SE] as an index for occupational status is methodologically appropriate but it tends to produce avoidable conceptual confusion. He has proposed a new procedure for examining overall occupational statuses that employs indicators of the remunerative return of an occupation (in the form of salary, wages, and net self-employment income), its level of "prestige," and the required level of skills and training. In this procedure the traditional SE] educational measure is replaced by the DOT'S SVP and GED scales. Coburn, David 1975 Job-worker incongruence: Consequences for health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 16(June):198-212. This paper examines the consequences for health of work that is perceived as excessively complex or excessively simple job incongruence. An objective measure of incongruence was constructed by comparing the required GED for jobs (listed in the DOT) with the actual educational attainment of the respondent. The author indicates that this is a highly limited measure of job incongruence due primarily to the difficulty in equating respondents' jobs with those defined in the DOT. Results showed that excessively complex work is not disliked but is associated with lower mental and physical health. Overly simple work, in addition to being disliked, shows similar psychological but much less evident physical effects. Finally, perceived incongruence has a much larger effect on health than does objective incongruence. Cooper, Jacqueline Fribush 1976 Comparative impact of the Scot and the Vocational Card Sort on career salience and career exploration of women. Journal of Counseling Psychology 23(July):348-352. The effects of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (scat), the Vocational Card Sort (vcs), and an exercise designed to make respondents aware of myths and realities of women in the world of work, the Auxiliary Informative Material (AIM), were examined in relation to (1) the number and type of career options considered, (2) frequency and variety of information-seeking behaviors, (3) career salience, and (4) satisfaction with the career exploration experience. The vcs materials include 90 cards, each with a DOT job title and job description. Results indicate some differences in the impact of the Scot and the vcs on the dependent variables; the vcs was found to be more effective than the scat in broadening career options and in increasing the frequency with which subjects read occupational information.

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268 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS Although the AIM did not have these effects, it did increase the career salience of women. Cullen, John B., and Shelley M. Novick 1979 The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: A further examination and extension. American Journal of Sociology 84(May): 142~1437. Using data for 267 occupational positions, Cullen and Novick derive and test several propositions from the Davis-Moore functional theory of stratification. Seven characteristics from the third edition DOT were employed: the three worker function scores (complexity of an occupation's relationship to data, people, and things); a five-point scale of physical demands rating an occupation from sedentary to very heavy work; the job's context, measured by a three-point scale of whether the job is commonly performed inside, outside, or both; discomfort as a dichotomous variable, noting that the DOT identifies at least one unpleasant condition associated with the performance of the occupation (e.g., extremes of cold or heat); and the eight-point specific vocational preparation scale, used to operationalize training. The analysis involves regressing income and prestige on various positional characteristics. Required talent (the job's functional complexity), training (svP), and perceived functional importance were found to increase both prestige and income significantly. One aspect of disagreeableness (physically demanding work) negatively affected prestige but not income. Another aspect (outside work) positively affected income. In general, the empirical evidence was found supportive of the Davis-Moore theory of stratification. Dawis, Rene V., and Lloyd H. Lofquist 1974 The Minnesota Occupational Classification System (MOCS). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology, Worker Adjust- ment Project. The Minnesota Occupational Classification System (MOCS) iS a psychological taxonomy of work for an initial group of 337 occupational titles and alternate titles. The system draws on data and variables from the Department of Labor's occupational aptitude patterns, the University of Minnesota's occupational reinforcer-pattern clusters, Holland's occupational classification, and the DOT. Specifically, the MOCS uses the DOT'S group arrangement of occupations, worker trait groups (interests, temperaments, and physical demands), and worker functions (level of involvement with data, people, and things). Dawis, Rene V., and Lloyd H. Lofquist 1975 Toward a psychological taxonomy of work. Journal of Vocational Behavior 8~0ctober):165-171. On the basis of the theory of work adjustment, occupational aptitude patterns and occupational reinforcer pattern clusters are cross-classified to develop psychologi- cally homogeneous groups of occupations ("axons). Information from other different and independently developed classification systems is embedded in the taxon matrix, including the third edition DOT'S occupational groupings, worker

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 269 traits, and worker functions. The validity of the approach is supported by the consistency and complementarily of the descriptive information in a given taxon derived from these different sources. Daymont, Thomas N. 1980 Changes in black-white labor market opportunities. In Herbert S. Parnes, Gilbert Nestel, Thomas M. Chirikos, Thomas N. Daymont, Frank L. Mott, Donald O. Parsons & Associates, eds., From Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Pre-Retirement and Post-Retirement Experiences of Men. Boston: MIT Press. This study examined changes in the relative employment opportunities of older black men between 1966 and 1976. The third edition DOT'S GED variable was used as a measure of education in the author's analyses. In terms of employment security and earnings the relative opportunities of blacks were quite sensitive to fluctuations in economic conditions, improving in good times and declining in bad. In general, however, the relative opportunities of blacks along both of these dimensions improved substantially during this period. The results also indicated that governmental efforts have had an impact but that racial equity has not been attained and that continued antidiscrimination efforts are in order. Desmond, Richard E., and David J. Weiss 1973 Supervisor estimation of abilities required in jobs. Journal of Vocational Behavior 3(April):181-194. The Minnesota Job Requirements Questionnaire (MIRQj, representing each of nine GATB-DOT worker aptitudes with five items, was developed and administered to supervisors of 11 selected jobs who rated the ability requirements of the job they supervised. These ratings were compared with expert ratings of the DOT and Occupational Ability Patterns (OAP'S) derived from administration of the General Aptitude Test Battery. The authors point out that the DOT'S worker trait groups are not rigorous methodologically and have not been tested in a predictive study, nor have reliability data been presented for the DOT ratings. The reliability and validity of the M]RQ ratings were examined and found sound. The OAP'S derived from the MIRQ compared favorably with those derived from the DOT and GATB, showing promise for the parsimonious MIRQ approach in the development of OAP'S. Desmond, Richard E., and David J. Weiss 1975 Worker estimation of ability requirements of their jobs. Journal of Vocational Behavior 7(August): 13-27. A modified version of the Minnesota Job Requirements Questionnare (MIRQj, representing the GATB-DOT worker aptitudes, was used by workers in l l selected jobs to rate the ability requirements of their jobs. The reliability of worker MIRQ ratings was comparable to that of supervisor ratings, and further examination showed construct validity for workers' ratings. Occupational Ability Patterns (OAP'S) derived from worker MIRQ ratings compared favorably with OAP'S derived

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270 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS from supervisor MIRQ ratings, from the DOT, and from the GATB. Differences among workers on variables such as satisfaction, age, and tenure did not significantly affect their MIRQ ratings. Dewey, Cindy Rice 1974 Exploring interests: A non-sexist method. Personnel and Guidance Journal 52(January):311-315. This paper describes the Non-Sexist Vocational Card Sort (NSVCS), a derivative of the Tyler Vocational Card Sort. Seventy-six gender-neutral occupational titles are presented on 3 X 5 cards with DOT job definitions coded according to Holland's six personality types. The subject is asked to sort the occupations into three groups: might choose, in question, and would not choose. In exploring the reasons for these decisions the subject can learn more about his or her vocational preferences. Droege, Robert R., and John Hawk 1977 Development of a U.S. Employment Service interest inventory. Journal of Employment Counseling 14(June):65-71. Research was conducted to develop an interest inventory corresponding to the interest areas in the third edition DOT (Vol. 2~. An inventory of 307 occupational activity items was developed and administered to a sample of 1,115 subjects in a selected number of states. An analysis of the results proved unsuccessful in developing scales to measure the current 10 interest factors in the third edition DOT (Vol. 2~; however, a factor analysis led to identification of readily interpretable interest factors similar in meaning and occupational coverage for men and women and broad enough to include the range of occupations in the economy. These interest factors will form the basis for the new interest inventory. Dubnoff, S. 1978 Beyond Sex Typing: Capitalism, Patriarchy and the Growth of Female Employment 194~1970. Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation Conference on Women, Work and Family, New York. Changes in the sex composition of occupations between 1940 and 1970 were estimated, using the 295 detailed occupations of the 1960 census as a standard. The effect of median earnings and the third edition DOT variables of DATA, PEOPLE, THINGS, GED, SVP and temperaments items 3 (supervision) and 4 (autonomy) on change in the percentage of women in occupations was assessed. The results showed that as the degree of complexity and level of involvement with data, people, and things increased, the percentage of women in an occupation decreased. The GED and svP were strongly and negatively related to changes in the percentage of women in an occupation. The relative growth in the percentage of women was likely to be high in occupations in which supervision was high and low in occupations requiring worker autonomy. Finally, occupations with higher earnings showed less growth in the percentage of women employed. By virtually every measure considered, the percentage of women increased in occupations that were considered less desirable.

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 271 Dubnoff, S. 1978 Inter-Occupational Shifts and Changes in the Quality of Work in the American Economy, 1900-1970. Paper presented at the Labor Studies Section of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, San Francisco, Calif. Census data for detailed occupations in each year between 1900 and 1970 and Temme s weighted estimates of the DOT'S scores for DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS, svP, and GED for the 295 detailed occupations in the 1960 Census were used to determine the shifts in distribution of workers across relevant categories of occupational characteristics, not occupations. With the exception of the people and GED scores, the scores indicated a trend toward both a lessening of the complexity of work and a decrease in the amount of required training time. The two exceptions, GED and PEOPLE, are both biased against manual labor and merely reflect the transition from manual to nonmanual labor. Within the nonmanual group, women fared far worse than men on all measures. In fact, they were the only group to show a net decline in required training time. Dumas, Neil S., and John E. Muthard 1971 Job analysis method for health-related professions: A pilot study of physical therapists. Journal of Applied Psychology 55~0ctober):458-465. A method for analyzing work of health personnel was devised and applied in a physical therapy service. Procedures for developing the special language for describing the tasks performed by physical therapists and methods for training observers to prepare sequential reports of the ongoing work of staff are presented. In encoding the "action" part of the task the authors used a modified version of the DOT'S DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS variables. Results indicated that observers could reliably report the detailed characteristics of the tasks in a physical therapy service over an extended period of time. Eckaus, R. S. 1964 Economic criteria for education and training. Review of Economics and Statistics 46(May): 181-190. Eckaus criticizes the use of rate of return criteria for determining the economic significance of education and suggests, as an alternative approach, the direct computation of a job's educational requirements. The third edition DOT'S SVP and GED scales were used to compute the educational requirements of census occupations. Eckaus converted these scales into year equivalents and then estimated the requirements for the census occupations. The results are presented in tabular form. Finally, the application of this approach to education and manpower planning is discussed. Eckaus' conversion of the two training time scales to year equivalents has since been adopted by a number of researchers.

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272 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS Ekpo-Ufot, Abel 1976 Self perceived abilities relevant in the task (SPART): A potential predictor of labor turnover in an industrial work setting. Personnel Psychology 29(Autumn):405-4 1 6. It has been suggested that workers' self-perceptions of their task-relevant abilities would predict their tendencies to quit their jobs. This paper describes the development and implementation of a SPART (self-perception of abilities relevant to the task) inventory for the job of auto assembler. The third edition DOT and the Estimates of Worker Trait Requirements for 4,000 Jobs were used as a source of worker aptitude requirements in formulating the inventory. Support was found for the reliability and construct validity of SPART; SPART was also somewhat predictive of job turnover. The author suggests further work to improve the instrument and discusses its possible applications. Fine, Sidney A. 1955 A structure of worker functions. Personnel and Guidance Journal 34~0ctober):66 73. A structure of 26 worker functions, developed by the U.S. Employment Service and later incorporated into the third edition DOT, iS described. A brief discussion of the structure and definitions of these functions is followed by a discussion of their reliability and their application. Fine suggests that they may be a useful research device in connection with job analysis, the study of criterion dimensionality, job classification, worker classification, performance evaluation, and the study of job satisfaction. Fine, Sidney A. 1957 A reexamination of 'transferability of skills' Part II. Monthly Labor Review (August):938-948. The first half of this article examined some of the difficulties behind the assumptions about transferability of skills. This part explores a systematic approach to transferability based on the Functional Occupational Classification Project (which was later incorporated, in part, into the third edition DOT). Fine outlines the classification system and describes how the work performed compo- nents (worker functions level of involvement with data, people, and things; work fields; and materials, products, subject matter, and services) can be organized to generate 5 orders of job similarity. The author suggests that depending on the training time required (low, medium, or high), for certain orders of similarity, transferability is feasible and practical. He then suggests practical applications of his model: to determine, in the case of unemployment insurance applicants, which jobs are "suitable" to skills they acquired on previous jobs; to counsel workers who must change jobs because of a handicap, age, or technological change; to determine how and where surplus skills in certain labor market areas can best be absorbed by other industries; to prepare for civilian defense; and to plan vocational training programs of the widest practical application in industry.

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294 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS kind. He describes the DOT as a classification system based on job content as well as worker characteristics, which also reflects socioeconomic levels as part of its structure. The structure of the third edition DOT is examined at length as an example of occupational classification. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the limitations of functional occupational classification systems: certain employee entrance standards may reflect unseen yet actual restrictive requirements of race, age, sex, and social conformity; job requirements are flexible and relative to labor supply and geographic location; rapid technological changes may quickly render published standards obsolete; and finally, occupational classification systems based on worker characteristics often overemphasize entrance require- ments. Sjogren, Douglas 1977 Occupationally-Transferable Skills and Characteristics: Review of Litera ture and Research. Information Series No. 105. Columbus: Ohio State University, Center for Vocational Education. This paper synthesizes research and literature on the nature of occupationally transferable skills, specifically to identify skills that seem to be highly transferable, in the sense of being general to a number of occupations. The author speculates about characteristics of skills that are generalizable or transferable. Some implications regarding educational programs, hiring and employment search practices, and research are drawn. The author relied most heavily on the third edition DOT'S worker trait and worker function scales in his analyses. Snyder, David, and Paula M. Hudis 1979 The sex differential in earnings: A further reappraisal. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32(April):378-374. In this review of an earlier article, Snyder and Hudis examine the association between occupational sex composition and gender-specific earnings. Using 1960 and 1970 Census data, the authors regress earnings on percentage female, median education, and several additional occupational characteristics. The third edition DOT variable svP (specific vocational preparation) is employed to measure the number of years of training required to develop the skills needed for average performance in a given occupation. The svP score discriminates at least roughly among specific training times necessary for incumbency in an occupation and is considered conceptually distinct from the "general" skills implicit in the median education measure. The analysis shows that gender composition of occupations is an important determinant of women's lower earnings but is less important than sex differences in economic returns to education, training, etc. Snyder, David, Mark D. Hayward, and Paula M. Hudis 1978 The location of change in sexual structure of occupations, 1950-1970: Insights from labor market segmentation theory. American Journal of Sociology 84(November):70~717.

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 295 To investigate changes in the sex composition of occupations between 1950 and 1970, the detailed U.S. Census occupations for 1950, 1960, and 1970 were examined for changes in percentage female, weighted averages of gender-specific annual income, median education, percentage full time and percentage full year. The third edition DOT'S SVP measure was also used. The assumption that changes in concentrations of female workers are negatively related to occupational desirability was not supported. Occupations rated low on income, education, svP, and percentage full time/full year showed greater variability in percentage female change than occupations rated high on these measures. Finally, the results seriously challenge the sex labeling/tipping effect expectation that occupations filled mainly by women are generally more likely to experience increases in concentrations of women. These findings support a dual labor market interpreta- tion of changes in occupational sexual structure. Spaeth, Joe L. 1979 Vertical differentiation among occupations. American Sociological Review 44~0ctober):74~762. This paper proposes a theory of vertical occupational differentiation based on the role activities of occupational incumbents. Two dimensions of vertical differentiation, authority and complexity, are derived from the division of labor. Spaeth used the third edition DOT'S DATA, GED, and svP ratings to assess complexity of work and the PEOPLE ratings as an indicator of authority. The DOT'S THINGS ratings were not used because the author felt they do not pertain to the full range of occupations but specifically to blue-collar jobs. These concepts are shown to differ from occupational prestige by estimating confirmatory factor models that contain indicators of authority, complexity, and prestige. Results of the analysis are used to suggest resolutions for some anomalous findings of research on the socioeconomic achievement process. Spenner, Kenneth I. 1977 From Generation to Generation: The Transmission of Occupation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison. In an effort to identify the aspects of occupations that are transmitted and the way in which these components are transmitted to the occupational aspirations and early occupational attainments of sons and daughters, Spenner developed a set of occupation-specific indicators for role components of the detailed 1960 and 1970 Census occupational categories. Among the variables used in the study were the DOT'S SVP, GED, worker functions (DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS variables), and temperament variables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8. In examining the validity of these measures, the author concludes that the DOT variables are adequate for his study, but further consideration of the issues of reliability and validity are in order. Spenner's main finding for the structure of role transmission shows that general socioeconomic components and several complexity aspects of work govern the father-son relationship but not the mother-daughter or mother-son relationships, nor do they govern role transmission involving a son's aspirations.

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296 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS Spenner, Kenneth I. 1979 Temporal changes in work content. American Sociological Review 44(December) :968-975. In examining the temporal changes in occupational skill requirements over the course of this century, researchers have focused on (1) change in the marginal distribution of workers to jobs and (2) actual change in the content of jobs. Recent research regarding the first type of change in the American economy suggests a modest skill downgrading since 1900. When the data from the third and fourth edition DOT are used for a sample of jobs, new evidence presented shows small variations for the second type of change for the last 10-12 years. There has been, if anything, a slight upgrading in skill requirements that occurs in a number of sectors of the labor force. Spenner, Kenneth I. 1980 Occupational characteristics and classification systems: new uses of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles in social research. Sociological Methods and Research 9(November). The paper describes the occupational characteristics used in the DOT and U.S. Census classification systems and reports on several characteristics that have recently been estimated for detailed 1960 and 1970 Census occupations. The report includes information on how the measures were generated, some evidence on their validity compared with corresponding individual-level measures, and descriptive statistics for the U.S. labor force. Also, the vector of job characteristics is used to assess the measurement slippage involved in moving between the DOT and the 1970 Census classification. Spenner, Kenneth I. 1981 Occupations, role characteristics and intergenerational transmission. Sociology of Work and Occupations 8(May). In a study examining the intergenerational covariation in occupational roles the author drew on the DOT'S PEOPLE and THINGS variables and svP ratings. Specific indicators for "routinization," "closeness of supervision," and "uncertainty" were taken from the temperaments variables of the DOT. Spenner, Kenneth I., Luther B. Otto, and Vaughn R. A. Call 1980 Estimates of Third Edition DOT Job Characteristics for 1970 Census Occupation-Industry Categories. Boys Town Center, Omaha, Nebraska, 68010. The computer file described in this paper contains weighted estimates of all occupation-related characteristics for 595 1970 Census occupation-industry catego- ries. The authors drew on the DOT'S worker function variables, GED, SVP, aptitudes, interests, temperaments, physical demands, and working conditions.

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 297 Spergel, Philip 1970 Vocational evaluation: Research and implications for maximizing human potential. Journal of Rehabilitation 36(January-February):2 1-24. The author states that although the process of work evaluation may continue to be an art, the introduction of validity testing, through well-designed research projects using the technology of programmed, computerized data analysis, should be encouraged. As an example he describes his work on relating work samples with the third edition DOT'S worker trait group arrangements and his attempts to validate the results empirically. Sterne, David M. 1974 The Kuder oils and rankings of vocational preference. Educational and Psychological Measurement 34(Spring):63-68. Kuder Occupational Interest Survey scores of hospitalized veterans were compared with their preferential rankings of the 77 ois occupations. These occupations were presented on cards accompanied by an abbreviated version of the DOT title. Low intercorrelation was found, though test-retest reliabilities were .93 and .76, respectively. The oils responses tended to resemble those of construction and skilled trades workers. Professional occupations related to construction and skilled trades received the highest rankings. Stevenson, Mary 1973 Women's wages and job segregation. Politics and Society (Fall):83-96. This article points to the dearth of economic analysis on the topic of discrimination against women and argues that women's inferior economic position may result from a highly segregated occupational structure. By using the third edition DOT'S GED and svP scales, occupational categories were ranked from highest to lowest according to the amount of education and training required. Results indicate that men are found in higher occupational groups than women with the same educational attainment and that men receive disproportionately higher wages than women in the same occupational group. Stevenson also cites evidence to support the "crowding hypothesis": women tend to be concentrated in a few limited occupations within an occupational group, while men are more evenly distributed. Thus women do not appear to have the same kind of access to all occupations that men do. Finally, men and women within an occupational group are segregated not only by occupation but also by industry. Stevenson, Mary 1974 Determinants of Low Wages for Women Workers. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Stevenson reviews the literature on working women, job segregation, and wage differentials and presents a model of occupational wage determination. Using the third edition DOT'S GED and svP scales, "occlevels," or occupational categories, were ranked from highest to lowest according to the amount of education and

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298 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS training required. Stevenson found that (1) within occlevels, women's rate of return on investment in education is lower than that of men, (2) within occlevels, women are crowded into fewer distinct occupations than men, and specifically in those occupations with the lowest wages in the occlevel, and (3) within occlevels, men nr1 women are segregated by industry as well as occupation. _ _ ~ O O Stolzenberg, Ross M. 1975 Occupations, labor markets and the process of wage attainment. American Sociological Review 40~0ctober):645-665. This study attempts to combine sociological models of earnings with economic models of earnings as well as concepts and findings from the sociology of occupations and professions. Drawing on U.S. Census and BES data as well as two variables from the third edition DOT, Stolzenberg examined, among other things, the impact of svP on earnings and prestige and the effects of physical demands on the age-wage relationship. The author concludes (1) that labor markets tend to be fragmented along occupational lines, (2) that the processes governing wage attainment vary from one occupation to another, and (3) that occupational differences in these processes can be predicted from and explained in terms of the forces that lead to occupational segmentation of labor markets. Studdiford, Walter S. 1951 A functional system of occupational classification. Occupations (Octo- ber):37-42. Studdiford recounts the history of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and describes the work conducted on an innovative classification system for the third edition. This functional system of occupational classification is composed of eight classification components: work done, knowledge and abilities, aptitudes, physical demands, temperaments, working conditions, industry, and training time. The author details the nature of each of the components and concludes with a brief discussion of future areas of study. Studdiford, Walter S. 1953 New occupational classification structure. Employment Security Review 20(September):36-39. The aims and philosophy of the classification system developed for the third edition DOT are discussed. Studdiford gives an example to illustrate how the worker traits of 4,000 jobs are analyzed and coded. He then answers frequently asked questions about the structure, method, and development of the classification system. Stump, Robert S. 1976 Occupational Mobility and Career Planning: What is Needed? Paper presented at the Second Career Education National Forum, Washington, D.C., February.

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 299 Following a brief review of occupational mobility studies, Stump describes alternative views of occupations, including the third edition DOT'S worker trait groups and functional job analysis (involvement with data, people, and things). He suggests work toward a clearer identification of the elements in jobs and an individual's abilities that make occupational changes happen and a more creative approach to job mobility studies. Finally, he outlines a project being conducted by the Center for Vocational Skills designed to explore the issue of transferable skills. Temme, Lloyd V. 1975 Occupation: Meanings and Measures. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. Drawing from economic, psychological, and sociological theories of occupations, Temme has developed a "3R" model to conceptualize career processes and achievements. The 3R model provides equal emphasis on routines, or type of work, requisites, and rewards (i.e., self-direction, prestige, and earnings). Measurement strategies and some practical problems encountered in using unwieldy classification systems are described, and techniques for constructing measures of each dimension of the 3R model are presented. The DOT and its worker traits and worker functions are reviewed. Temme developed a new set of measures of occupational characteris- tics for occupations used in both the 1960 and 1970 Census classifications. The new measures include the DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS scales and the GED and svP scales from the third edition DOT. Time Share Corporation 1976 The Guidance Information System (GIS) Guide. West Hartford, Conn.: Houghton Mifflin Company. The Guidance Information System (GIS) iS a computer-based system that provides information on civilian and military occupations, 4-year and 2-year colleges, graduate schools, and sources of scholarships and financial aid. The GIS'S Occupational Information File (occu) and Armed Services Occupational Informa- tion (ASOC) make use of the DOT'S occupational families, codes, definitions, and related job titles. An analysis of DOT interests, aptitudes, physical demands, and working conditions aids clients in choosing appropriate occupational categories. Tinsley, Howard E. A., and Suzanne M. Gaughan 1975 A cross-sectional analysis of the impact of rehabilitation counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 1 8(March): 147-153. Data obtained from handicap rehabilitation clients were analyzed to determine the immediate and long-term impact of rehabilitation counseling on the work adjustment of the recipients. Respondents' occupations were assigned DOT codes and grouped according to the first digit. Comparison (third edition) of the clients' work adjustment before and after rehabilitation counseling revealed an increase in the employment rate subsequent to counseling and a shift toward employment in occupations that make fewer physical demands on the worker. The percentage of persons employed in professional-managerial and clerical-sales occupations in

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300 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS creased from referral to closure, while decreases were observed in miscellaneous and fishing, farming, forestry, and related occupations for the same time period. Further analysis indicated that rehabilitation counseling has a lasting impact on the work adjustment of the client. Tinsley, Howard E. A., and David J. Weiss 1974 A multivariate investigation of the reinforcer structure of occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior 4(January):97-11 3. Earlier research based on 81 Occupational Reinforcer Patterns (ORP'S) suggested a nine-category classification of occupations. The present research, based on 148 ORP'S, investigated the ability of that classificatory system to assimilate new information. Occupations in each first-digit DOT code group were sampled in proportion to the number of workers in the United States employed in those occupations, and this process yielded a sample representative of the population of occupations available. Cluster analysis of the 148 ORP'S produced an eight-category classification of occupations in which five of the original occupational clusters appeared virtually unchanged and the other four were combined into two clusters. One new cluster was identified. The factor structure of these occupational reinforcers was also examined. Touliatos, John, Byron W. Lindholm, and Amy Rich 1978 Influence of family background on scholastic achievement. Journal of Experimental Education 46(Spring):22-27. The relationship between family background and achievement in school was examined for the two sexes and for social classes. Data were obtained from the cumulative folders of white children in grades 3 through 6. Measures of scholastic achievement were the California Achievement Tests. Social class was defined in terms of father's employment according to the classification system of the DOT. Class I included professional and technical workers, managers, officials, and proprietors; class II was composed of clerical and sales workers; class III was composed of craftsmen and operatives; and class IV was composed of laborers, service workers, and the unemployed. Scholastic achievement was highest for girls and for children living with both parents, for those from smaller families, and for those in the first-born or last-born positions. Interactions with social class are discussed. Treiman, Donald J. 1977 Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective. New York: Academic Press. In chapter 9 the author recommends that the Dictionary of Occupational Titles be employed in coding foreign occupational data to the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale. The occupational definitions provided in the DOT are particularly helpful in determining the appropriate prestige coding when the occupational title is not readily found in the Standard Scale's alphabetical index or in the International Standard Classification of Occupations discos.

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses 301 Ullman, Charles A. 1971 Measures of learning disability for different purposes. Journal of Learning Disabilities 4(April): 10-16. There is a popular preference for intensive, norm-referenced measures, such as age scores and grade scores, in the field of learning disabilities. However, for systematic study, particularly if factors relating to growth are involved, some type of equal- interval measure is preferable to measures using intervals of variable size. The author believes that the development of techniques of absolute measurement may provide the advantages of both equal-interval measures and criterion-based standards. Ullman notes that two of the third edition DOT'S features are of special relevance for educational and vocational guidance of persons with learning disabilities: the GED scale and the occupational aptitude patterns. Viernstein, Mary Cowan 1972 The extension of Holland's occupational classification to all occupations in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Journal of Vocational Behavior 2(April): 107-121. Two methods are presented for extending Holland's occupational classification to include all occupations in the third edition DOT. They enable translation from any DOT code into the corresponding Holland occupational code. Holland's system is based on a theory of personality types and is organized into six major categories. Wallbrown, Fred H., and Charles B. Huelsman, Jr. 1975 The validity of the Wallach-Kogan creativity operations for inner-city children in two areas of visual art. Journal of Personality 43(March): 109- 126. The validity of the Wallach-Kogan (W-K) creativity operation was investigated for 73 third and fourth grade children in an inner-city school. The third edition DOT was used to code the occupational status of fathers. Two crayon drawings and clay products were collected from each child and rated by four judges on originality and effectiveness of expression. A satisfactory degree of concordance was obtained among judges' ratings for both dimensions of clay products but not for the crayon drawings. Analysis yielded strong support for the validity of the work operations. A negative relationship was evident between birth order and all five W-K subtests as well as both criterion dimensions for clay products. Finally, the authors' assertion that their creativity operations define a pervasive dimension with discriminant validity from general intelligence is confirmed. Walls, Richard T., M. S. Tseng, and William D. Ellis 1977 Time and money for vocational rehabilitation of clients with psychotic and psychoneurotic disabilities. Journal of Occupational Psychology 50(Spring):37 44. "Rehabilitated" and "unrehabilitated" psychotic and-psychoneurotic clients were compared in connection with two time variables (months in the rehabilitation

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302 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS process and training) and two cost variables (dollars for all services and for facilities). Occupations at closure were assigned third edition DOT codes and grouped according to the first digit. No differences were found between clinical groups on such outcome variables as work status, occupational level, or weekly earnings at closure. As compared to psychotics, psychoneurotics tended to require more time in vocational rehabilitation process and training and less money for rehabilitation facilities. Rehabilitated clients were found to be in the vocational rehabilitation process for less time than unrehabilitated clients. Walther, Regis S. 1960 The Functional Occupational Classification Project: A critical appraisal. Personnel and Guidance Journal 38(May):698-706. Walther describes the Functional Occupational Classification Project (FOCP) and his efforts to test the usefulness of the classification system. He applied it first to a study made of clerical jobs in the Foreign Service and then to two intensive studies of the job of business executives. He concludes that there are many elements influencing the world of work, such as attitudes, values, energy, types of anxiety, and role requirements, which are not included in the FOCP. In examining the theoretical background of and support for the component parts of the FOCP the author questions the methodology and validity of Cottle's work, on which the interests and aptitudes dimensions are based. He further suggests that rather than measure GED, it would be more useful to examine the different ways in which individuals use their intellect. Finally, in evaluating the worker function variables (DATA, PEOPLE, and THINGS), Walther finds the hierarchy of function levels artificial and unrealistic. In closing he remarks that the FOCP has made a substantial contribution to the field by emphasizing the psychological dimensions not usually considered in conventional job analyses but that its shortcomings and limitations warrant serious attention. Walther, Regis H. 1964 The Psychological Dimensions of Work: An Experimental Taxonomy of Occupations. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, Center for the Behavioral Sciences. This paper proposes an experimental taxonomy of occupations, the Job Analysis and Interest Measurement (IAIM), which is based on psychological dimensions of work. It began by evaluating the degree of success achieved by tests of ability, interests,- and personality in predicting job satisfaction or performance or in distinguishing among occupations. An evaluation was also made of various models for classifying occupations and of factor analyses of ability, interests, and personality tests that have been shown to have substantial empirical validation. The third edition DOT'S interest and temperament scales were among those examined. The author concludes that the analysis of the job and the individual should be focused on those stable differences among individuals, functioning in psychologi- cally equivalent job situations, that are related to differences in job performance and satisfaction. The author applies the JAIM experimentally to various samples and makes proposals for further research.

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Annotated Bibliography of Research Uses Weagraff, Patrick J. 303 1974 The cluster concept: Development of curricular materials for the public service occupations cluster. Journal of Research and Development in Education 7(Spring):45-54. The advantages and disadvantages of career cluster systems are discussed. An overview of past cluster systems is presented. The author states that ideally, a cluster scheme should encompass all or most of the jobs listed in the DOT. He then describes a public service cluster analysis undertaken by the California State Department of Education and the instructional materials that were produced. Wehrly, Beatrice L. 1973 Children's occupational knowledge. Vocational Guidance Quarterly 22(December): 12~129. School children, 386 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders, took a paper and pencil test to measure their knowledge of 15 occupations. The test was scored using a key developed from information from the Occupational Outlook Handbook and the third edition DOT. Data were collected on parents' occupations, lo, reading achievement, sex, and age. Reading achievement, grade in school, and age all showed a significant positive relationship with the measure of occupational knowledge; lo and parents' socioeconomic status, however, were not correlated with performance on the occupational test. Westbrook, Bert W., and Joseph W. Parry-Hill, Jr. 1973 The measurement of cognitive vocational maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior 3(July):239-252. This report describes the development of an instrument to measure an individual's level of cognitive vocational maturity in six areas: fields of work, job selection, work conditions, education required, attributes required, and duties. By using the third edition DOT and the Occupational Outlook Handbook as sources of information about the characteristics and requirements of occupations, multiple- choice items were constructed for each of the selected occupations. Reliability estimates for the subtests as well as criterion-related and construct validity data are presented. It was found that pupils whose vocational choices were in agreement with their field of interest and their ability level scored higher on all subtests than did pupils whose choices agreed with neither their interests nor their ability level. Witt, Mary, and Patricia K. Naherny 1975 Women's Work Up from .878. Report on the DOT Research Project. Madison: University of Wisconsin Extension, Women's Education Resources. This report (1) determines via established DOT job analysis procedures the adequacy of the DOT'S treatment of women's work, particularly as it relates to jobs in the service category, (2) identifies problems in DOT job analysis theory responsible for documented instances of sex discrimination, and (3) develops

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304 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS accurate job descriptions and recommendations to ensure the fair and equitable disposition of women's work in future editions of the DOT. Woods, Ernest, Jr., and Jules M. Zimmer 1976 Racial effects in counseling-like interviews: An experimental analogue. Journal of Counseling Psychology 23(November):527-53 1. This study examined racial experimenter effects in counseling-like interviews employing the verbal operant-conditioning paradigm. The general objective was to determine whether significant differences in the "conditionability" of black and white students would be found when the verbal reinforcement was provided by black and white experimenters. Subjects' socioeconomic level was determined by their fathers' occupation, which were rated high or low on the basis of DOT definitions. (There is no further elaboration as to how this was done.) No significant differences were found in the experimenter-subject racial interaction.