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A P P E N D I X DOT Scales Ffor the 1970 Census Classification PATRICIA A. ROOS and DONALD J. TREIMAN To be able to relate the characteristics of occupations, as available in the DOT, to the characteristics of individuals in those occupations, as available in U.S. Census and survey data, would provide a tool for substantially increasing understanding of the operation of the U.S. economy. The need for this capability has been noted by a number of researchers, as documented in chapter 4, and was one underlying purpose of the development of the Standard Occupational Classification. At present, the only available source of data on occupations is the aggregation of characteristics of occupational incumbents published every 10 years by the Census Bureau (e.g., U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1973~. The occupational characteristics in the DOT constitute an additional rich source of data, particularly valuable because they measure aspects of job content rather than the characteristics of workers. To be most useful, however, the DOT occupational characteristics, which exist as scores for each of 12,099 occupations, must be mapped into whatever classification is used to code the occupations of individuals. To illustrate the possibility of such a capability, we have estimated summary scores of selected DOT characteristics for the 591 occupational Thanks are due to Professor Jonathan Kelley for his advice on the construction of the factor- based scales. 336

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DOT Scales for the 1970 Census Classification 337 categories in the 1970 Census. Table F-1 (at the end of this appendix) presents these scores for each of eight occupational characteristics in the fourth edition DOT: DATA, PEOPLE, THINGS, GED, SVP, STRENGTH, PHYSDEM (physical demands), and ENVIRON (environmental conditions).) Table F-2 (at the end of this appendix) provides scores for each of four factor-based scales derived from the DOT worker trait and worker function variables: substantive complexity, motor skills, physical demands, and undesirable working conditions.2 CENSUS SCORES FOR EIGHT DOT VARIABLES To derive these scores, we took advantage of a source of data that includes both the 1970 U.S. Census occupation codes and the fourth edition DOT codes as well as enough cases to produce reliable estimates for detailed occupational categories. The April 1971 Current Population Survey (cPs), containing information for 60,441 workers, had been coded routinely with 1970 Census occupation codes. The occupational descriptions from this cPs had also been coded with third edition DOT codes by the staff of the occupational analysis field centers of the U.S. Employment Service. A map relating third to fourth edition DOT codes (created by the Division of Occupational Analysis) was used to add the fourth edition DOT occupa- tional character~stics.3 Fourth edition codes were not available for 6,984 cases. To create scores for the census occupations, we averaged the DOT scores for all individuals in each census category. We did this by computing an average of the scores for all DOT occupations in each census occupation, with weights proportional to the number of individuals holding each DOT occupation. Computing unweighted averages would in eject assume that each DOT title within a given census occupation occurs with equal frequency in the iThese variables are discussed in greater detail in footnote a of Table F- 1. 2A computer tape containing scores for the full set of fourth edition DOT occupational characteristics plus the four factor-based scales for the 1970 Census categories has been deposited with the National Technical Information Service and the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, University of Michigan. 3Lloyd Temme, then at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, made available to us the Current Population Survey containing codes for the fourth edition DOT. Earlier, Temme (1975) had performed a similar aggregation of third edition DOT codes into 1960 and 1970 Census occupational categories, using two Current Population Surveys (October 1966 and April 1971). Estimates for all third edition DOT characteristics for 595 1970 Census categories are available to interested users and may be obtained from Kenneth Spenner, Career Development, Boys Town Center for the Study of Youth Development, Boys Town, Nebraska 68010.

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338 WORK, JOBS, AND OCCUPATIONS labor force. An illustation of the distortion that this would create can be found by considering the DOT occupations Bricklayer (861.381-018) and Stonemason (861.381-038), which combine (along with other DOT occupa- tions) to form the census occupation Brickmasons and Stonemasons (410~. It so happens that there are approximately 10 times as many bricklayers as stonemasons, as estimated by the representative sample of the Current Population Survey (bricklayers compose 70 percent of the category, and stonemasons compose 7 percent). With no weighting, both occupations would have equal weight in determining the occupational averages; weighting by the proportion of the sample in each of the two DOT titles means that the DOT occupation Bricklayer properly has the larger contribution to the average score for the census category. To create the occupational characteristic estimates provided in this appendix, we thus computed a weighted average of the scores for all the DOT occupations falling within any census category. The census clas- sification used is not the standard three-digit code but the expanded version used in published reports (e.g., U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1973), which takes into account distinctions about industry and class of worker if such information is available.4 Even with the large sample used in the aggregation, however, not all of the census occupational categories were represented in the cPs data. Thus the cPs data could not be used to provide estimates for 18 census occupations plus an unknown number of industrial distinctions within those occupational categories in which such distinc- tions are made. It was possible to assign scores to 17 of the census categories by borrowing scores from similar occupations or sets of occupations. Decision rules for these assignments are given in Table F-3 (at the end of this appendix). CENSUS SCORES FOR FOUR FACTOR-BASED SCALES Because, as we have seen in chapter 7, the DOT worker function and worker trait variables are highly redundant, with many items highly intercorrelated, it seemed desirable to develop multiple-item scales of the major underlying dimensions so as to improve reliability (Nunnally, 1967:191-198~. To do this, we factor analyzed the 46 worker traits and worker functions by using as data the aggregated DOT scores for the 574 census occupational categories (categories for which scores had to be estimated were excluded from the analysis). This factor analysis is analogous but not identical to that reported in chapter 7, which is based on 4The expanded version of the 1970 U.S. Census occupational classification is described in greater detail in footnote b of Table F-1.

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DOT Scales for the 1970 Census Classification 339 a 10-percent sample of the 12,099 DOT occupations. The two samples differ mainly in that the DOT sample includes proportionately more occupations in the production sector than does the census, as documented in chapter 7. The variables also differ slightly. For example, the working condition variables are coded as dichotomies in the DOT sample but as proportions in the census sample (the proportion of constituent DOT occupations having the condition). Nonetheless, the two samples are conceptually similar. It is therefore reassuring that the factor analysis results obtained in this exercises are not too dissimilar from those reported in chapter 7. Four interpretable factors emerged: substantive complexity, motor skills, physi- cal demands, and undesirable working conditions. These correspond to factors 1, 2, 3, and 6 reported in chapter 7. The next step was to choose for each factor that set of items that loaded strongly on the factor and only weakly or not at all on the other factors. The general rule of thumb used was that items should load at least .5 on the primary factor and less than .3 on the remaining factors. Items chosen in this way were then standardized and summed to form each scale, and, for convenience, each scale was converted to a ~10 range (the lowest- scoring occupation is scored zero and the highest-scoring occupation is scored 10~. This procedure gives all included items equal weight. The items included in each scale are shown below; the factor loadings from a reduced factor analysis including only the items appearing in one of the four scales are shown in Table F-4 (at the end of this appendix); and the scale scores for each census occupation are shown in Table F-2. (See Table 7-8 for a more complete description of these variables.) The four factor scales and items included in them are as follows: (1) substantive complexity, including DATA (worker function), GED (training time), svP (training time), INTEEE (aptitude), VERBAL (aptitude), NUMER (aptitude), ABSTRACT (interest), and REPCON (temperament for repetitive or continu- ous process); (2) motor skills, including THINGS (worker function), MOTOR (aptitude), FINGDEX (aptitude), MANDEX (aptitude), COEORDIS (aptitude), and SEE (physical demand), and (3) physical demands, including EYEHAND (aptitude), CElMB (physical demand), STOOP (physical demand), EOCATION (working condition), and HAZARDS (working condition), and (4) undesirable working conditions, including CQLD (working condition), HEAT (working condition), and WET (working condition). 5The factor analysis was carried out using the sPss computer program: the procedures used were principal components with iterations, varimax rotation, and default options.

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DOT Scales for the 1970 Census Classification TABLE F-4 Factor Loadings: Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix a . 389 Factor Undesirable Substantive PhysicalWorking VariableComplexityMotor SkillsDemandsConditions DATA0.920.01-0.14-0.1 7 THINGS0.050.890.12-0.06 GED0.95-0.03-0.17-0.13 svP0.930.14-0.02-0.12 INTELL0.92-0.10-0.18-0.15 VERBAL0.90-0. 1 8-0.25-0. 14 NUMER0.84-0.01-0.17-0.12 MOTOR-0.060.820.08-0.09 FINGDEX0.08a."-0.08-0.08 MANDEX-0.310.780.21-0.01 EYEHAND-0.070.200.640.01 COLORDIS0.150.520.000.17 ABSTRACT0.830.13-0.04-0.10 REPCON-0.81-0.10-0.010.24 CLIMB-0.030.060.890.20 STOOP-0.290.070.690.15 SEE0.040.710.13-0.09 LOCATION~ 0. 1 1-0.070.73-0.02 COLD-0. 16-0.08o. 12a." HEAT-0.20-0.010.1 10.71 WET-0.28-0.050. 140.66 HAZARDS-0.140.210. 680.33 a See text for description of variables. Scores on DATA, THINGS, INTELL, VERBAL, NUMER, MOTOR, FINGDEX, MANDEX, EYEHAND, and COLORDIS were reflected so that high scores represent high levels of the trait. Coefficients in boldface indicate that the item is included in the scale.