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TABLE 8.1 Examples of Pathogens Disproportionately Affecting Certain Regions

Patnogen

Region of Highest Prevalence

Other Regions Affected

Dengue virus

Endemic in south Asia, southeast Asia, west Africa, north Australia

Isolated epidemics in Caribbean 1963, 1969; Central America 1977; Polynesia and Micronesia 1963, 1979

E. coli (enterotoxigenic)

Worldwide

 

H. influenzae type b

Worldwide

 

Hepatitis A virus

Worldwide

 

Hepatitis B virus

Worldwide, though higher prevalence in developing countries than developed world. High chronic carriage rates in southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa

 

Japanese encephalitis virus

Endemic in tropical Asia, Australia, and New Guinea

 

Mycobacterium leprae

Tropical areas of India, southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, and Latin America

 

Neisseria meningitidis

Meningitis belt across sub-Saharan Africa, Nile River valley

Worldwide

Parainfluenza viruses

Worldwide

 

Plasmodium spp.

Sub-Saharan Africa, south and southeast Asia, tropical Central and South America, Pacific Islands, and New Guinea

 

Rabies virus

Developing countries

Industrialized countries

Respiratory syncytial virus

Worldwide

 

Rotavirus

Worldwide

 

Salmonella typhi

Developing countries

Industrialized countries

Shigella spp.

Developing countries

Industrialized countries

Streptococcus Group A

Worldwide

 

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Worldwide

 

Vibrio cholera

Endemic in south and southeast Asia, Africa

Occasional epidemics in southern Europe and the Middle East

Yellow fever virus

Tropical South America, sub-Saharan Africa

 



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