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TABLE 8.2 Alternatives to Candidate Vaccines


Prevention or Control Measures


Dengue virus

Vector control,a personal protectionb

Supportive care

E. coli (enter otoxigenic)

Potable water supply, improve sanitation, educational and behavioral change,c improve socioeconomic status

Oral rehydration therapy, antibacterial agents for severe cases

H. influenzae type b

Improve crowded living conditions, increase air circulation, early anti-bacterials for severe acute respiratory illness

Antibacterial agents (some problems with resistance), bronchodilators

Hepatitis A virus

Potable water supply, improve sanitation, education and behavioral change,c passive immunization of travelers

Supportive care

Hepatitis B virus

Improve crowded living conditions, improve socioeconomic status, personal hygiene, vaccine for high-risk groups (expensive)

Supportive care

Japanese encephalitis virus

Vector control,a control of nonhuman hosts, vaccine (slow antibody response)

Supportive care

Mycobacterium leprae

Active case finding in endemic areas; rapid, appropriate treatment of cases; chemoprophylaxis; personal sanitation; and isolation of cases (all ineffective)

Anti-mycobacterial agents (problems with development of resistance), patient education to prevent complications

Neisseria meningitidis

Respiratory isolation of cases, chemoprophylaxis of exposed persons, vaccine (limited serotype coverage), improve crowding and ventilation

Antibacterial agents, supportive care

Parainfluenza viruses

Improve crowded living conditions, increase air circulation

Supportive care, early antibacterial agents for secondary bacterial pneumonia

Plasmodium spp.

Vector control,a personal protection,b chemoprophylaxis for children and pregnant women to prevent falciparum malaria

Anti-malarials (some problem with resistance), supportive care

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