Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$43.50



View/Hide Left Panel

orally or parenterally, and 3 weeks later the vaccinated and control calves were challenged orally with pathogenic S. typhimurium (Robertsson et al., 1983). The oral attenuated vaccine protected significantly better than the parenteral killed vaccine. These results are sufficiently promising to evoke interest in analogous aromatic-dependent S. typhi oral vaccine strains for human use.

New vaccines to protect against typhoid fever, particularly the live oral vaccines, provide an opportunity for the disease control in endemic areas. However, further vaccine studies are impeded by the lack of understanding of the immunological basis of protection and the lack of suitable animal models for typhoid fever. At this point, the only way to assess the efficacy of a vaccine is through large-scale field trials in endemic areas.

REFERENCES

Germanier, R. 1984. Typhoid fever. Pp. 137–165 in Bacterial Vaccines, R.Germanier, ed. New York: Academic Press.

Germanier, R., and E.Furer. 1975. Isolation and characterization of S. typhi gal E mutant Ty21a: A candidate strain for a live oral typhoid vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 131:553–558.


Hoiseth, S.K., and B.A.D.Stocker. 1981. Aromatic dependent Salmonella typhimurium are non-virulent and effective as live vaccines. Nature 291:238.

Hornick, R.B. 1982. Typhoid fever. Pp. 659–676 in Bacterial Infections of Humans, A.S.Evans and H.A.Feldman, eds. New York: Plenum.

Hornick, R.B. 1985. Selective primary health care: strategies for the control of diseases in the developing world. XX. Typhoid fever. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:536–546.


Levin, D.M., K.H.Wong, H.V.Reynolds, A.Sutton, and R.S.Northrup. 1975. Vi antigen from Salmonella typhosa and immunity against typhoid fever. II. Safety and immunogenicity in humans. Infect. Immun. 12:1290–1294.

Levine, M.M., J.B.Kaper, R.E.Black, and M.L.Clements. 1983. New knowledge on pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections as applied to vaccine development. Microbiol. Rev. 47:510–550.


National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 1985. Program on Accelerated Development of New Vaccines. Progress Report. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health.


Punjabi, N.H. 1984. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Typhoid Fever, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C., November 29–30, 1984.


Robertsson, J.A., A.A.Lindberg, S.Hoiseth, and B.A.D.Stocker. 1983. Salmonella typhimurium infection in calves: Protection and survival of virulent challenge bacteria after immunization with live or inactivated vaccines. Infect. Immun. 41:742–750.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement