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TABLE 1.1 Candidates for Accelerated Vaccine Development: Diseases of Importance in Developing Countries

Pathogen

Vaccine Envisaged

Target Populationa

Dengue virus

Attenuated live vector virus containing gene for broadly cross-reacting protective antigen

Infants and children in endemic areas; travelers to endemic areas

Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic)

A combination of purified colonization factor antigens and possibly other antigens

Infants<6 months

 

Genetically engineered attenuated strains

Infants<6 months

Hemophilus influenzae type b

Conjugated polysaccharide

Infants

Hepatitis A virus

Attenuated live virus

Susceptibles of all ages; routine for preschool children

 

Polypeptide recombinant vaccine produced in yeast

Susceptibles of all ages; routine for preschool children

Hepatitis B virus

Polypeptide produced by recombinant DNA technology

Areas with high perinatal infection: all infants at birth (if possible). Other areas: all infants, simultaneous with other vaccinations, at earliest possible age

Japanese encephalitis virus

Inactivated virus produced in cell culture

Children in epidemic and endemic areas; foreign visitors to epidemic regions

Mycobacterium leprae

Armadillo-derived M.leprae

Immuno-prophylactic: all children in endemic areas. Immuno-therapeutic: all recently infected persons

Neisseria meningitidis

Conjugated capsular polysaccharides, Groups A,C,Y, and W135

Infants, 3 to 6 months

Parainfluenza viruses

Trivalent, subunit vaccine (which must contain fusion proteins)

Infants

Plasmodium spp.

Plasmodium falciparum, synthetic or recombinant sporozoite antigen preparation

All infants at risk, military personnel, travelers

 

Multivalent synthetic or recombinant sporozoite antigen preparation (P.falciparum, P.vivax, P.ovale, P.malariae)

All infants at risk, military personnel, travelers

Rabies virus

Vero cell derived vaccine

Persons at high risk, plus post-exposure prophylaxis

 

Glycoprotein produced by rDNA technology in mammalian cells

Persons at high risk, plus post-exposure prophylaxis

 

Attenuated live vector virus containing gene for protective glycoprotein antigen

Birth cohort in areas of high risk



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