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Route of Administration

Adverse Reactions

Delivery Requirements

Incorporation into EPI

Intradermal

Low grade fever, soreness, muscle aches

Cold chain required; possible freeze-drying in future

Yes

Oral

None

Adjuvant use may reduce number of doses

Yes

Oral

Possibly mild diarrhea in 20%

Cold chain for lyophilized bacteria; adjuvant may be needed

Yes

Intramuscular

5% local

Refrigeration

If in a polyvalent vaccine

Parenteral, subcutaneous, or intramuscular

Minimal

Refrigeration of lyophilized preparation

As a combination with IPV and other antigens

Subcutaneous or intramuscular

Minimal

Refrigeration

Might be combined with other nonliving vaccines

Intramuscular or subcutaneous

Negligible

Refrigeration

Could be incorporated at present; efficacy much improved if delivery possible at birth, i.e., with modified EPI schedules

Subcutaneous

Some possibility of life-threatening effects associated with current vaccines: allergic encephalomyelitis; acute viral encephalitis

Nothing unusual

Yes

 

Feasible

Intramuscular

Minor local

Refrigeration

Feasible

Subcutaneous

None

Nothing unusual

 

Subcutaneous or intramuscular

No data—unknown

Adjuvant required, probably alum

Probably

Subcutaneous or intramuscular

No data—unknown

Nothing unusual

Probably



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