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TABLE 7.3 Expenditures to Achieve Health Benefits for Various Vaccines

Pathogen (Target Population)

Type of Vaccine

Probability of Successful Development

Cost of Development (dollars)

Minimum Time to Steady State of Vaccine Use

Dengue virus

(Infants and children in endemic areas; travelers to endemic areas)

Attenuated live vector virus containing gene for broadly cross-reacting protective antigen

0.75

25,000,000

12

Escherichia coli

(enterotoxigenic)

(Infants < 6 months)

A combination of purified colonization factor antigens and possibly other antigens

0.50

25,000,000

12

Genetically engineered attenuated strains

0.70

37,500,000

12

Hemophilus influenzae type b

(Infants)

Conjugated polysaccharide

0.90

15,000,000

8

Hepatitis A virus

(Susceptibles of all ages; routine for preschool children)

Attenuated live virus

0.95

15,000,000

9

Polypeptide recombinant vaccine produced in yeast

0.95

25,000,000

10

Hepatitis B virus

(Areas with high perinatal infection: all infants at birth (if possible). Other areas: all infants, simultaneous with other vaccinations)

Polypeptide produced by recombinant DNA technology

0.99

5,000,000

3

Japanese encephalitis virus

(Children in epidemic and endemic areas; foreign visitors to epidemic regions)

Inactivated virus produced in cell culture

0.50

50,000,000

9.5

Mycobacterium leprae

(Immunoprophylactic: all children in endemic areas. Immunotherapeutic: all recently infected individuals)

Armadillo-derived M. leprae

0.50

25,000,000

15

Neisseria meningitidis

(Infants, 3 to 6 months)

Conjugated capsular polysaccharides. Groups A,C,Y, and W135

0.50

30,000,000

10

Parainfluenza viruses

(Infants)

Trivalent, subunit vaccine (which must contain fusion proteins)

0.80

25,000,000

10

Plasmodium spp.

(All infants at risk, military personnel, travelers)

Plasmodium falciparum, synthetic or recombinant sporozoite antigen preparation

0.50

25,000,000

8.5

Multivalent synthetic or recombinant sporozoite antigen preparation (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae)

0.50

35,000,000

11



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