Table Of Contents

 

 

Executive Summary

 

1

 Chapter 1:

 

Context

 

6

   

1.1. Urgency and Problem,

 

6

   

1.2. Relevant Existing Studies,

 

8

   

1.2.1. The National Academy of Sciences Study,

 

8

   

1.2.2. The Status of the Implementation of the NAS Study Recommendations,

 

12

   

1.2.3. The German/Russian Study,

 

16

   

1.3. Overview of Technologies for Potential Collaboration,

 

17

   

1.3.1. WPu Disposition Using MOX,

 

17

   

1.3.2. Vitrification of WPu with High Level Waste,

 

20

   

1.3.3. Comparison of the MOX and Vitrification Option for the Disposal of WPu,

 

20

   

1.3.4. Material Protection, Control, and Accounting,

 

21

 Chapter 2:

 

Assistance, Infrastructure, and Policies

 

23

   

2.1. Western Assistance to Russian Disarmament,

 

23

   

2.1.1. U.S. Assistance,

 

23

   

2.1.2. European and Other Western Assistance,

 

24

   

2.1.3. Assessment of Activities,

 

26

   

2.2. Russian Nuclear Infrastructure and Policy,

 

27

   

2.2.1. Experience with MOX Use and Fabrication,

 

27

   

2.2.2. Experience with Vitrification,

 

28

   

2.2.3. Evolution of Russian Nuclear Policy,

 

28

   

2.3. German Nuclear Infrastructure and Policy,

 

29

   

2.3.1. Experience with MOX Use and Fabrication,

 

29

   

2.3.2. Experience with Vitrification,

 

30

   

2.3.3. German Nuclear Policy and Infrastructure,

 

31

 Chapter 3:

 

Principles for German Participation

 

33

   

3.1. Principles of German Participation,

 

33

   

3.2. The Safeguarding of Russian and German Activities,

 

34

 Chapter 4:

 

Recommendations for German Participation

 

36

   

4.1. Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting,

 

36

   

4.2. Intermediate Storage,

 

37

   

4.3. Recommendations on Disposition Options.

 

37

   

4.3.1. The “Hanau Option”,

 

37

   

4.3.2. A Large MOX Fabrication Plant in Russia.

 

39

   

4.3.3. A Small MOX Fabrication Facility,

 

40

   

4.3.4. A Small Pilot Vitrification Facility,

 

40



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OCR for page R13
U.S.-GERMAN COOPERATION IN THE ELIMINATION OF EXCESS WEAPONS PLUTONIUM Table Of Contents     Executive Summary   1  Chapter 1:   Context   6     1.1. Urgency and Problem,   6     1.2. Relevant Existing Studies,   8     1.2.1. The National Academy of Sciences Study,   8     1.2.2. The Status of the Implementation of the NAS Study Recommendations,   12     1.2.3. The German/Russian Study,   16     1.3. Overview of Technologies for Potential Collaboration,   17     1.3.1. WPu Disposition Using MOX,   17     1.3.2. Vitrification of WPu with High Level Waste,   20     1.3.3. Comparison of the MOX and Vitrification Option for the Disposal of WPu,   20     1.3.4. Material Protection, Control, and Accounting,   21  Chapter 2:   Assistance, Infrastructure, and Policies   23     2.1. Western Assistance to Russian Disarmament,   23     2.1.1. U.S. Assistance,   23     2.1.2. European and Other Western Assistance,   24     2.1.3. Assessment of Activities,   26     2.2. Russian Nuclear Infrastructure and Policy,   27     2.2.1. Experience with MOX Use and Fabrication,   27     2.2.2. Experience with Vitrification,   28     2.2.3. Evolution of Russian Nuclear Policy,   28     2.3. German Nuclear Infrastructure and Policy,   29     2.3.1. Experience with MOX Use and Fabrication,   29     2.3.2. Experience with Vitrification,   30     2.3.3. German Nuclear Policy and Infrastructure,   31  Chapter 3:   Principles for German Participation   33     3.1. Principles of German Participation,   33     3.2. The Safeguarding of Russian and German Activities,   34  Chapter 4:   Recommendations for German Participation   36     4.1. Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting,   36     4.2. Intermediate Storage,   37     4.3. Recommendations on Disposition Options.   37     4.3.1. The “Hanau Option”,   37     4.3.2. A Large MOX Fabrication Plant in Russia.   39     4.3.3. A Small MOX Fabrication Facility,   40     4.3.4. A Small Pilot Vitrification Facility,   40

OCR for page R13
U.S.-GERMAN COOPERATION IN THE ELIMINATION OF EXCESS WEAPONS PLUTONIUM  Chapter 5:   Summary of Recommendations   41     Appendices    A.   Executive Summary of the NAS Plutonium Study,   43  B.   WPu Disposition Using MOX,   64  C.   WPu Disposition Through Vitrification with HLW,   70  D.   Participants in the Bonn Workshop,   73  E.   Abbreviations,   76