Special Report 242

CURBING GRIDLOCK

Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion

VOLUME 1

Committee Report and Recommendations

Committee for Study on Urban Transportation Congestion Pricing

Transportation Research Board

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1994



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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion Special Report 242 CURBING GRIDLOCK Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion VOLUME 1 Committee Report and Recommendations Committee for Study on Urban Transportation Congestion Pricing Transportation Research Board Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion Transportation Research Board Special Report 242 Volumes 1 and 2 ISSN 0360-859X ISBN 0-309-05504-0 (Vol. 1) ISBN 0-309-05505-9 (Vol. 2) L.C. Catalog Card No. 94-16817 Subscriber Category IA planning and administration Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering directly from TRB. They may also be obtained on a regular basis through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB; affiliates or library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, write to the Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by the Report Review Committee, consisting of the members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The study was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Curbing gridlock : peak-period fees to relieve traffic congestion / Transportation Research Board, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. p. cm. — (Special report : 242) Contents: v. 1. Committee report and recommendations — v. 2. Commissioned papers. ISBN 0-309-05504-0 (v. 1). — ISBN 0-309-05505-9 (v. 2) 1. Congestion pricing—United States. 2. Traffic congestion—United States. 3. Transportation—Government policy—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. II. Title. III. Series: Special report (National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board) : 242. HE336.C66N37 1994 388.3'12—dc20 ISSN 0360-859X 94-16817 CIP Cover design: Karen L. White Cover photograph courtesy California Department of Transportation

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion Committee for Study on Urban Transportation Congestion Pricing MARTIN WACHS, Chairman, University of California at Los Angeles JOSE A. GOMEZ-IBANEZ, Harvard University SUSAN E. HANSON, Clark University STEVE HEMINGER, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, Californiaa JOEL L. HOROWlTZ, University of Iowa LAURA A. JIBBEN, Regional Transportation Authority of Northeastern Illinois RYUICHI KITAMURA, University of Kyoto, Japan DANIEL L. MCFADDEN, University of California at Berkeley MICHAEL S. MCGILL, Bay Area Economic Forum, San Franciscob JOHN G. MILLIKEN, Venable, Baetjer, & Howard, McLean, Virginiac PAUL E. PETERSON, Harvard University MARK A. PISANO, Southern California Association of Governments ROBERT C. REPETTO, World Resources Institute WILLIAM T. ROACH, King County Metro, Seattle, Washington KENNETH A. SMALL, University of California at Irvine Liaison Representatives JOHN W. ARCHER, American Automobile Association JOHN T. BERG, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation DAVID J. HENSING, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials KEVIN H. KRUKE, Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility PAUL D. MCCARTHY, Ford Motor Company TED SCOTT, American Trucking Associations FRED WILLIAMS, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation National Research Council Staff ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Director, Studies and Information Services, Transportation Research Board (TRB) STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Study Director, TRB SUSANNE A. STOIBER, Division on Social and Economic Studies, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NANCY A. ACKERMAN, Director, Reports and Editorial Services, TRB NAOMI C. KASSABIAN, Associate Editor, TRB a   Joined the committee in May 1993 to replace Michael McGill when he resigned. b   Resigned from the committee when appointed as Administrative Assistant to Senator Diane Feinstein of California. c   During the course of the study, Mr. Milliken was Secretary of Transportation, Commonwealth of Virginia.

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion Preface In response to the growing interest in congestion pricing, the Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration requested that the Transportation Research Board and the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council conduct a study of this tool for congestion management. The study committee would Assess and synthesize available research and experience on congestion pricing, Commission papers on critical issues raised by congestion pricing to be presented at a national symposium, and Develop recommendations on the potential role of market pricing principles as a tool for congestion management, guidelines for the assessment of the impacts of congestion pricing experiments, and fruitful areas for further research, demonstration, or experimentation. To conduct this study, the National Research Council appointed a committee with expertise in economics, political science, transportation planning, geography, transit and highway agency management, civil engineering, and government. The committee's deliberations were supplemented by liaison representatives from several groups concerned about the benefits and costs of congestion pricing. (Liaison representatives were invited to participate in the committee's discussion and review and comment on report drafts, but did not vote on recommendations.) After a review of the literature, and drawing from its expertise, the committee commissioned papers on a variety of topics. These papers were presented and discussed at a symposium held in Washington, D.C., in 1993. The

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion papers, as revised by their authors after the symposium, are contained in Volume 2 of this Special Report. Volume 1 contains the committee 's overview of the material contained in the commissioned papers, its conclusions, and recommendations regarding the potential of congestion pricing, the need for evaluation of early demonstrations, and other research needs. Several of the members selected for this study committee and several of the authors of commissioned papers reside in California. There is good reason for this representation. Congestion pricing as a concept and proposal has been more extensively studied in California in recent years than elsewhere in the United States, and the only experimentation with congestion pricing moving forward at the time of this writing is occurring in California. The report was reviewed by an independent group of reviewers in accordance with National Research Council report review procedures. The report was performed under the overall supervision of Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Director, Studies and Information Services, Transportation Researach Board, and Susanne A. Stoiber, Director, Division on Social and Economic Studies, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Stephen R. Godwin served as study director and, under the guidance of the committee, drafted the report. The final report was edited and prepared for publication under the supervision of Nancy A. Ackerman, Director, Reports and Editorial Services, Transportation Research Board. Naomi Kassabian was the editor for the report. Frances E. Holland provided word processing support and, along with Marguerite E. Schneider, provided assistance in meeting logistics and committee correspondence.

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion Contents VOLUME 1: Committee Report and Recommendations     Executive Summary   1  1   Introduction   16      Impetus for Congestion Pricing,   18      Resistance to Congestion Pricing,   23      Outline of Report,   24  2   Theory and Experience   27      Theory,   27      Application,   30      Experience,   31  3   Possible Effects   39      Impact on Travel,   40      Net Benefits,   45      Distributional Effects,   46      Commercial Traffic,   48      Air Quality,   49      Energy,   52      Urban Form,   53      Summary,   54  4   Technical and Political Feasibility   58      Technical Feasibility,   59      Political Feasibility,   64      Summary,   77  5   Design, Evaluation, and Research   81      Design Issues,   81      Evaluation,   86      Other Research,   91  6   Summary   97      Possible Effects,   100      Political Feasibility,   102      Importance of Evaluation,   102  Appendix A   Traffic Congestion   104  Appendix B   Theory, Experience, and Estimated Effects   117     Study Committee Biographical Information   140

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion Contents VOLUME 2: Commissioned Papers     Congestion Trends in Metropolitan Areas Peter Gordon and Harry W. Richardson   1     Alternative Methods for Measuring Congestion Levels Michael D. Meyer   32     Potential of Congestion Pricing in the Metropolitan Washington Region Kiran Bhatt   62     Transporation Pricing and Travel Behavior Greig W. Harvey   89     Peak Pricing Strategies in Transportation, Utilities, and Telecommunication: Lessons for Road Pricing David Gillen   115     Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking: A Precedent for Congestion Pricing Donald C. Shoup   152     The New York Region: First in Tolls, Last in Road Pricing? Jeffrey M. Zupan   200     Pricing Urban Roadways: Administrative and Institutional Issues David J. Olson   216     Equity and Fairness Considerations of Congestion Pricing Genevieve Giuliano   250     The Politics of Congestion Pricing? Mark Rom   280     Institutional and Political Challenges in Implementing Congestion Pricing: Case Study of the San Francisco Bay Area Hank Dittmar, Karen Frick, and David Tannehill   300

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CURBING GRIDLOCK: Peak-Period Fees To Relieve Traffic Congestion     How Congestion Pricing Came To Be Proposed in the San Diego Region: A Case History John L. Duve   318     Urban Transportation Congestion Pricing: Effects on Urban Form Elizabeth Deakin   334     Congestion Pricing and Motor Vehicle Emissions: An Initial Review Randall Guensler and Daniel Sperling   356     Private Toll Roads: Acceptability of Congestion Pricing in Southern California Gordon J. Fielding   380     Potential of Next-Generation Technology A. D. May   405     Electronic Toll Collection Systems Michael C. Pietrzyk   464     Impacts of Congestion Pricing on Transit and Carpool Demand and supply John Kain   502

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