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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS Committee on the Arctic Research Vessel Ocean Studies Board Polar Research Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Academy Press 1995
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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This committee was supported by a contract with the National Science Foundation. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Cover art was created by Carrie Mallory. Ms. Mallory received her Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree from the Cooper Union. She takes many of her themes from the natural world and has exhibited at a number of juried shows in the Northern Virginia area. The art for this cover was inspired by the shoreline at Peggy's Cove, Nova Scotia. Copies of this report are available from Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20418. Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS COMMITTEE ON THE ARCTIC RESEARCH VESSEL PAUL STOFFA (Chairman), University of Texas, Austin GERALD CANN, Independent Consultant, Rockville, Maryland DAVID DeMASTER, North Carolina State University, Raleigh RICHARD GOODY, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts JACQUELINE GREBMEIER, University of Tennessee, Knoxville RICHARD KU, University of Southern California, Los Angeles MARCUS LANGSETH, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York RICHARD MORITZ, University of Washington, Seattle JOHN MORRISON, North Carolina State University, Raleigh JOHN ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston DONALD WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon Staff ELIZABETH TURNER, Study Director LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant
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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS OCEAN STUDIES BOARD WILLIAM MERRELL (Chairman), Texas A&M University, Galveston GERALD A. CANN, Senior Advisor to the Executive Committee, Raytheon Company, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida JOHN E. FLIPSE, Independent Consultant, Georgetown, South Carolina SUSAN HANNA, Oregon State University, Corvallis JOHN E. HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN E. HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia ROBERT B. GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California LOUIS L. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey JOHN MAGNUSON, University of Wisconsin, Madison B. GREGORY MITCHELL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ARTHUR NOWELL, University of Washington, Seattle TERRANCE J. QUINN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks BARRY RALEIGH, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JAMES P. RAY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas PETER RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle BRIAN ROTHSCHILD, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth THOMAS C. ROYER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin Staff MARY HOPE KATSOUROS, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Staff Officer DAN WALKER, Staff Officer ELIZABETH TURNER, Research Associate MARY PECHACEK, Administrative Associate LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant LAVONCYÉ MALLORY, Senior Secretary PAULETTE SALMON, Project Assistant
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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS POLAR RESEARCH BOARD DAVID L. CLARK (Chairman), University of Wisconsin, Madison KNUT AAGAARD, University of Washington, Seattle JOHN B. ANDERSON, Rice University, Houston, Texas DAVID R. BAINES, St. Maries Clinic, St. Maries, Idaho ERNEST S. BURCH, JR., Consultant, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania GORDON F.N. COX, Amoco Production Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma ROBERT L. DEZAFRA, State University of New York, Stony Brook BERNARD HALLET, University of Washington, Seattle DOYAL A. HARPER, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wisconsin DAVID M. HITE, Consultant, Anchorage, Alaska DIANNE M. McKNIGHT, U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, Colorado DONAL T. MANAHAN, University of Southern California, Los Angeles WALTER C. OECHEL, San Diego State University, San Diego, California IRENE C. PEDEN, University of Washington, Seattle GLENN E. SHAW, University of Alaska, Fairbanks DONALD B. SINIFF, University of Minnesota, St. Paul JUNE LINDSTEDT-SIVA, ARCO, Los Angeles, California ROBERT M. WALKER, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri Ex-Officio Members CHARLES R. BENTLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison ELLEN S. MOSLEY-THOMPSON, Ohio State University, Columbus ROBERT H. RUTFORD, University of Texas, Dallas ORAN R. YOUNG, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire Staff LOREN W. SETLOW, Director TONI GREENLEAF, Senior Project Assistant/Financial Assistant KELLY NORSINGLE, Senior Project Assistant
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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. MCCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDY MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS A. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director JIM MALLORY, Administrative Officer GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant
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ARCTIC OCEAN RESEARCH AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES: NATIONAL NEEDS AND GOALS The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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