Contributors' Biographies

LINDA H. AIKEN, Ph.D., is Trustee Professor of Nursing, professor of sociology, and director of the Center for Health Services and Policy Research at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests include access to health services, the organization and financing of health services (particularly AIDS care), and health work force policy. She received her B.S.N. and M.S.N. from the University of Florida, and her Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Aiken was elected a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1981 and is a member of the IOM Council.

STUART H. ALTMAN, Ph.D., is Sol C. Chaikin Professor of National Health Policy at the Florence Heller Graduate School for Social Policy at Brandeis University. Dr. Altman is also chairman of the Prosepective Payment Assessment Commission and is serving his fourth 3-year term in that capacity. His research interests include health care cost, access, and work force issues. Dr. Altman received his B.B.A. from City College of New York, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1979. He has previously served as a member of the IOM Council.

BARRY R. BLOOM, Ph.D., is an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Weinstock Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. He is



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For the Public Good: Highlights from the Institute of Medicine, 1970–1995 Contributors' Biographies LINDA H. AIKEN, Ph.D., is Trustee Professor of Nursing, professor of sociology, and director of the Center for Health Services and Policy Research at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests include access to health services, the organization and financing of health services (particularly AIDS care), and health work force policy. She received her B.S.N. and M.S.N. from the University of Florida, and her Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Aiken was elected a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1981 and is a member of the IOM Council. STUART H. ALTMAN, Ph.D., is Sol C. Chaikin Professor of National Health Policy at the Florence Heller Graduate School for Social Policy at Brandeis University. Dr. Altman is also chairman of the Prosepective Payment Assessment Commission and is serving his fourth 3-year term in that capacity. His research interests include health care cost, access, and work force issues. Dr. Altman received his B.B.A. from City College of New York, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1979. He has previously served as a member of the IOM Council. BARRY R. BLOOM, Ph.D., is an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Weinstock Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. He is

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For the Public Good: Highlights from the Institute of Medicine, 1970–1995 currently cochair of the IOM's Board of International Health and serves on the IOM Council. Dr. Bloom received his A.B. from Amherst College and his Ph.D. from Rockefeller University. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987 and a member of IOM in 1988. ROBERT H. BROOK., M.D., Sc.D., F.A.C.P., is a corporate fellow at RAND and director of RAND's Health Sciences Program. He is also professor of medicine and health services at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Center for Health Sciences and director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. His research interests include quality assessment and assurance, the development and use of health status measurements in health policy, the effiency and effectiveness of medical care, and variation in the use of selected services by geographic area. Dr. Brook received his B.S. from the University of Arizona and his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1982. AVEDIS DONABEDIAN, M.D., M.P.H., is the Nathan Sinai Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Public Health at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. His work has concentrated largely on the systematization of knowledge in various areas of health care organization—especially quality assessment and monitoring—the assessment of needs and resources for health care, and the design of program benefits. Dr. Donabedian received his B.A. and M.D. from the American University of Beirut and his M.P.H. from Harvard University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1971. KRISTINE M. GEBBIE, R.N., Dr.P.H., is the Elizabeth Standish Gill Assistant Professor of Nursing at Columbia University's School of Nursing. Dr. Gebbie also serves as a senior consultant on public health initiatives to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health of the U.S. Public Health Service. The focus of her teaching and research is health policy and health services, with particular attention to population-based public health services. Dr. Gebbie served as the first National AIDS Policy Coordinator, appointed by President Bill Clinton to oversee the nation's HIV and AIDS agenda in research, services, and prevention. She received her B.S.N. from St. Olaf College, her M.S.N. from the University of California at Los Angeles, and her Dr.Ph. from the University of Michigan. Dr. Gebbie was elected a member of the IOM in 1992. GERALD N. GROB, Ph.D., is the Henry E. Sigerist Professor of the History of Medicine at Rutgers University. His research deals with the evolution of public policy concerning the care and treatment of the severely and chronically mentally ill in the United States and the development of psychiatry as a

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For the Public Good: Highlights from the Institute of Medicine, 1970–1995 medical specialty. Dr. Grob received his B.S.S. from the City College of New York, his A.M. from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1990. DAVID A. HAMBURG, M.D., is president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, a position he has held since 1983. From 1975 to 1980, he served as the third president of the IOM. His research interests include biological responses and adaptive behavior in stressful situations, as well as human aggression and conflict resolution. He has also concentrated on the conjunction of the biomedical and the behavioral sciences, both in the context of building an interdisciplinary scientific approach to psychiatric problems and in the contribution of behavior to the burden of illness. Dr. Hamburg received his A.B. and his M.D. from Indiana University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1971. JUNE E. OSBORN, M.D., is professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, where she was dean from 1984 to 1993. She is also professor of pediatrics and communicable diseases at the University of Michigan Medical School. Dr. Osborn received her A.B. from Oberlin College and her M.D. from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. She was elected a member of the IOM in 1986 and to the IOM Council in 1995. UWE E. REINHARDT, Ph.D., is James Madison Professor of Political Economy and professor of economics and public affairs at Princeton University. Dr. Reinhardt 's research interests center mainly on health economics and health policy, but also include topics in corporate finance. He received his Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Saskatchewan, Canada, and his M.A., M.P.H., and Ph.D. from Yale University. Dr. Reinhardt was elected a member of IOM in 1978 and served on the IOM Council from 1980 to 1982. FREDERICK C. ROBBINS, M.D., is University Professor Emeritus at Case Western Reserve University and Dean Emeritus of the Case Western University School of Medicine. From 1980 to 1985, Dr. Robbins served as the fourth president of IOM. His research interests include medical education, health policy issues, international health, and the prevention of disease and the maintenance of health among children, particularly through the development and use of vaccines. Dr. Robbins was a corecipient with John F. Enders and Thomas Weller of the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, which was given in recognition of their development of techniques for the growth of poliovirus in nonnervous tissue. Dr. Robbins received his B.A. from the

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For the Public Good: Highlights from the Institute of Medicine, 1970–1995 University of Missouri and his M.D. from Harvard University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1973. STEVEN A. SCHROEDER, M.D., is president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey. Dr. Schroeder also continues to practice general internal medicine on a part-time basis at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, where he is also a clinical professor of medicine. His research interests include clinical medicine, health care organization and financing, work force issues, quality of care, and preventive medicine. He received his B.A. from Stanford University and his M.D. from Harvard University. Dr. Schroeder was elected a member of IOM in 1983. IOM STAFF ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Ph.D., is president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in Morrisville, North Carolina. Dr. Bond worked at the IOM from 1980 to June 1994, first as director of the Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and then, during the last 6 years of her tenure, as IOM 's executive officer. Her current interest is the long-term health and strength of biomedical research, especially investments in human resources—the scientists who contribute to the long-term success of the enterprise through both their own research efforts and their training of future generations of scientists. Dr. Bond received her B.S. from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. from Georgetown University. MARILYN J. FIELD, Ph.D., is deputy director of the Division of Health Care Services, where she has lead responsibility for issues related to technology assessment and innovation; clinical practice guidelines; and health care organization, financing, and cost management. At the IOM, Dr. Field has directed, among others, four studies of public and private efforts to develop, use, and evaluate clinical practice guidelines, as well as studies of the health services research workforce, care at the end of life, the future of dental education, and an evaluation of telemedicine applications. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. LESLIE M. HARDY, M.H.S., is a senior policy analyst in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), where she serves as liaison to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. During her approximately 9 years at IOM, she was a senior program officer, most recently serving as study director for the

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For the Public Good: Highlights from the Institute of Medicine, 1970–1995 Committee on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Ms. Hardy also worked on a variety of AIDS-related activities, including the IOM Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS. She received her A.B. from Duke University and her M.H.S. from The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. KAREN HEIN, M.D., became executive officer of the IOM in January 1995. She is also clinical professor of pediatrics, epidemiology, and social medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University. During 1993–1994, as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow, she worked on health care reform as a member of the Senate Finance Committee staff in Washington, D.C., drafting legislation related to health benefits, workforce, and financing medical education and academic health centers. Dr. Hein received her B.A. from the University of Wisconsin, attended Dartmouth Medical School, and received her M.D. from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. MARION EIN LEWIN, M.A., is a senior staff officer and director of the Office of Health Policy Programs and Fellowships. In this position, she heads the program office for the Pew Health Policy Program, directs The Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellowship Program, and is involved in a number of other policy-oriented study activities. Prior to her present position, Ms. Lewin was director of the Center for Health Policy Research at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, where she conducted research and policy studies related to the financing and delivery of health care including indigent care, Medicare and Medicaid, and private-sector health care cost-management efforts. She received her B.A. and M.A. from Columbia University. KATHLEEN N. LOHR, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Health Care Services. health workforce, long-term care, health care reform, and clinical evaluation. She directs a program of studies on the quality of and access to health care, health policy, the health work force and personnel, and related health issues. She is presently acting as the study director for a short-term project on the U.S. physician supply and is also responsible for staff direction of an IOM-wide initiative on quality: “America's Health Care in Transition.” Dr. Lohr received her B.A. and M.A. from Stanford University and her Ph.D. from the RAND Graduate Institute. CONSTANCE M. PECHURA, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. She has directed a number of projects on such topics as: assessing health affects of chemical weapons exposure on

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For the Public Good: Highlights from the Institute of Medicine, 1970–1995 World War II human subjects, ethical and public policy issues of cross-species organ transplantation, science base of medically assisted conception and fetal research, research opportunities regarding mental and addictive disorders in women, integrating computer technologies to map the human brain, microbial pathogenesis, developmental neurobiology, sleep research, and health and human rights. She received her B.S. from Virginia Commonwealth University and her Ph.D. from the F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. KENNETH I. SHINE, M.D., is president of the Institute of Medicine and Professor of Medicine Emeritus at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine. Prior to becoming IOM's sixth president in 1992, Dr. Shine was dean of the UCLA School of Medicine and provost for medical sciences. Both a cardiologist and a physiologist, his research interests include metabolic events in heart muscle, the relation of behavior to heart disease, and emergency medicine. He also participated in efforts to prove the value of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following a heart attack and in establishing the 911 emergency telephone number in Los Angeles. Dr. Shine received his A.B. and M.D. from Harvard University. He was elected a member of IOM in 1988. KATHLEEN R. STRATTON, Ph.D., is associate director, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. During her 5 years at the National Research Council and the IOM, she has directed projects related to risk assessment, vaccines and immunization, and, most recently, fetal alcohol syndrome. Her postdoctoral research fellowships were in neuroscience and in pharmacology. She received her B.A. from the Johns Hopkins University and her Ph.D. from the University of Maryland at Baltimore.