currently cochair of the IOM's Board of International Health and serves on the IOM Council. Dr. Bloom received his A.B. from Amherst College and his Ph.D. from Rockefeller University. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987 and a member of IOM in 1988.

ROBERT H. BROOK., M.D., Sc.D., F.A.C.P., is a corporate fellow at RAND and director of RAND's Health Sciences Program. He is also professor of medicine and health services at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Center for Health Sciences and director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. His research interests include quality assessment and assurance, the development and use of health status measurements in health policy, the effiency and effectiveness of medical care, and variation in the use of selected services by geographic area. Dr. Brook received his B.S. from the University of Arizona and his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1982.

AVEDIS DONABEDIAN, M.D., M.P.H., is the Nathan Sinai Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Public Health at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. His work has concentrated largely on the systematization of knowledge in various areas of health care organization—especially quality assessment and monitoring—the assessment of needs and resources for health care, and the design of program benefits. Dr. Donabedian received his B.A. and M.D. from the American University of Beirut and his M.P.H. from Harvard University. He was elected a member of the IOM in 1971.

KRISTINE M. GEBBIE, R.N., Dr.P.H., is the Elizabeth Standish Gill Assistant Professor of Nursing at Columbia University's School of Nursing. Dr. Gebbie also serves as a senior consultant on public health initiatives to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health of the U.S. Public Health Service. The focus of her teaching and research is health policy and health services, with particular attention to population-based public health services. Dr. Gebbie served as the first National AIDS Policy Coordinator, appointed by President Bill Clinton to oversee the nation's HIV and AIDS agenda in research, services, and prevention. She received her B.S.N. from St. Olaf College, her M.S.N. from the University of California at Los Angeles, and her Dr.Ph. from the University of Michigan. Dr. Gebbie was elected a member of the IOM in 1992.

GERALD N. GROB, Ph.D., is the Henry E. Sigerist Professor of the History of Medicine at Rutgers University. His research deals with the evolution of public policy concerning the care and treatment of the severely and chronically mentally ill in the United States and the development of psychiatry as a



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