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Appendix A

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS

William Lewis (Chair) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and also serves as Director of the Center for Limnology at CU-Boulder. Professor Lewis received his Ph.D. degree in 1974 at Indiana University with emphasis on limnology, the study of inland waters. His research interests, as reflected by over 120 journal articles and books, include productivity and other metabolic aspects of aquatic ecosystems, aquatic food webs, composition of biotic communities, nutrient cycling, and the quality of inland waters. The geographic extent of Professor Lewis's work encompasses not only the montane and plains areas of Colorado, but also Latin America and southeast Asia, where he has conducted extensive studies of tropical aquatic systems. Professor Lewis has served on the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Committee on Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems and is currently Chair of the newly created NAS/NRC Wetlands Committee. He is also a member of the NRC's Water Science and Technology Board.

Garrick A. Bailey earned his B.A. in history from the University of Oklahoma, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Oregon. He is a professor in the Department of Anthropology and is Director of the Indian Studies Program at the University of Tulsa. Dr. Bailey specializes in North American Indians, legal systems, cultural ecology, ethnohistoric methods, and social organization. He is a member of the American Anthropological Association, Plains Anthropological Society, American Ethnological Society, and the American Society of Ethnohistory.

Bonnie Colby is Associate Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of Arizona Department of Agricultural Economics. Her undergraduate degree is from the University of California and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Her



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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Appendix A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS William Lewis (Chair) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and also serves as Director of the Center for Limnology at CU-Boulder. Professor Lewis received his Ph.D. degree in 1974 at Indiana University with emphasis on limnology, the study of inland waters. His research interests, as reflected by over 120 journal articles and books, include productivity and other metabolic aspects of aquatic ecosystems, aquatic food webs, composition of biotic communities, nutrient cycling, and the quality of inland waters. The geographic extent of Professor Lewis's work encompasses not only the montane and plains areas of Colorado, but also Latin America and southeast Asia, where he has conducted extensive studies of tropical aquatic systems. Professor Lewis has served on the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Committee on Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems and is currently Chair of the newly created NAS/NRC Wetlands Committee. He is also a member of the NRC's Water Science and Technology Board. Garrick A. Bailey earned his B.A. in history from the University of Oklahoma, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Oregon. He is a professor in the Department of Anthropology and is Director of the Indian Studies Program at the University of Tulsa. Dr. Bailey specializes in North American Indians, legal systems, cultural ecology, ethnohistoric methods, and social organization. He is a member of the American Anthropological Association, Plains Anthropological Society, American Ethnological Society, and the American Society of Ethnohistory. Bonnie Colby is Associate Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of Arizona Department of Agricultural Economics. Her undergraduate degree is from the University of California and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Her

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam research, teaching and consulting focus is on the economics of water resources management and policy. She has authored over 40 publications in this area, including a number of journal articles and a book, Water Marketing in Theory and Practice: Market Transfers, Water Values and Public Policy, 1987. In addition to her work on water reallocation, she specialized in research on water quality, valuation of water rights and environmental amenities, and natural resource management in developing tribal and rural economies. Dr. Colby served on the NRC's Committee on Western Water Management. David Dawdy received his M.S. in statistics from Stanford University. His professional experience is with U.S. Geological Survey from 1951 to 1976 as a research hydraulic engineer; Adjunct Professor of Civil Engineering from 1969 to 1972 at Colorado State University, Ft. Collins; and Assistant District Chief for Programming, California District, Water Resources Division from 1972 to 1975. He has served on numerous advisory groups including NRC committees. From 1976 to 1980 he was Chief Hydrologist with Dames and Moore in Washington, D.C., and is currently a private consultant in surface water hydrology. Robert C. Euler is a consulting anthropologist specializing in the applied anthropology, archeology, ethnology, and ethnohistory of the American Southwest and Great Basin. As such, he conducts research in cross-cultural resources management, social and economic impact assessments, Indian legal claims cases, and archaeological investigations, especially those related to environmental impacts. Dr. Euler is also Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at Arizona State University, Tempe. In addition, he serves as Tribal Anthropologist for the Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe. Dr. Euler earned his B.A. and M.A. in economics from Northern Arizona University, and his Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of New Mexico. Ian Goodman earned his B.S. in civil engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977. Initially in his career, he performed research at MIT where he developed inputs to a policy-specific model of energy use for intercity goods movement. He began consulting in 1978 and was employed with several firms in the Boston area working on various aspects of utility regulation and economics. He is now the principal of his own consulting firm, The Goodman Group, where his work includes assessing electric and gas resource planning, demand forecasts, supply options, and environmental effects. Mr. Goodman also evaluates conservation potential and cost-effectiveness, program design, and utility demand-side management initiatives. William Graf obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison with a major in physical geography and a minor in water resources management. He specialized in fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, conservation policy and public land

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam management, and aerial photographic interpretation. He has served as Consulting Geomorphologist for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in a research and advisory role concerning the environmental impact assessment of flood control works, Salt and Gila Rivers in Arizona; and for Camp, Dresser, and McKee, Inc. for geomorphology and geology, and the state of Arizona for fluvial geomorphology. His research activities have emphasized fluvial geomorphology and the effects of human activities on streams; public land management, especially wilderness preservation, and rapids in canyon rivers; dynamics and recreation management; and the problems of heavy metal and radionuclide transport in river systems. Dr. Graf has published about 50 articles and book chapters on the impact of suburbanization on fluvial geomorphology; resources, the environment and the American experience; and the effect of dam closure on downstream rapids. His books include The Geomorphic Systems of North America, The Colorado River: Basin Stability and Management, Fluvial Processes and Dryland Rivers, Wilderness Preservation and the Sagebrush Rebellions, and Plutonium and the Rio Grande. Dr. Graf is a member of the NRC's Water Science and Technology Board. Clark Hubbs received his Ph.D. in biology from Stanford University in 1951. He joined the faculty of The University of Texas at Austin in 1949, became Professor of Zoology in 1963 and the Clark Hubbs Regents Professor in 1989 and has been Regents Professor Emeritus since 1991. He served as Chairman of Biology 1974-76 and Chairman of Zoology 1978-85. He was concurrently Visiting Professor of Zoology at the University of Oklahoma 1973-86 and on the faculty of Texas A&M 1975-81. He has served as Curator of Ichthyology at the Texas Memorial Museum from 1975 to the present. He has received the Award of Excellence from the American Fisheries Society and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Society of Ichthyologists. He has published more than 250 papers on aquatic biology. His research interests include distribution and speciation of fishes; hybridization of freshwater fishes; environmental modification of freshwater fishes. Dr. Hubbs has a history of work with endangered fishes and now has a substantial program on predation of adults on their young. Trevor C. Hughes acquired his Ph.D. in civil engineering from Utah State University. His professional experience includes teaching since 1972 at Utah State University in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department; research experience as NDEA Fellow at Utah State; Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah Water Research Lab; and Research Scientist at International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Austria. Since 1971 he has conducted research projects on the management of salinity in the Colorado Basin; drought management analysis and policy design; regional planning of rural water supply systems; economic analysis of alternative water conservation concepts; river system operational models--Sevier River; and application and development of water demand function for domestic water systems at recreation developments.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Roderick F. Nash received an M.A. and Ph.D. in 1961 and 1964 from the University of Wisconsin. He specialized in American intellectual history under Professor Merle Curti. Before his appointment at University of California at Santa Barbara in 1966, he taught for two years at Dartmouth College. Dr. Nash published the first collection of documents relating to environmental history, The American Environment, 1968. His most significant recent work is The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics, 1989. A national leader in the field of conservation, environmental management, and environmental education, Dr. Nash has a special interest in problems relating to wilderness and its preservation. A. Dan Tarlock obtained his LL.B. from Stanford University. His professional experience includes private practice, San Francisco, 1966; professor in residence at a law firm in Nebraska, summers of 1977 to 1979; and consultant. He has been a Professor of Law at Chicago Kent College of Law since 1981. He has authored and co-authored many publications and articles concerning water resources management and environmental law and policy. Mr. Tarlock served as a member of an NRC Committee on Pest Management, is Vice Chair of the NRC's Water Science and Technology Board, and co-authored one of the basic casebooks in water law.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam APPENDIX B LONG-TERM MONITORING IN GLEN AND GRAND CANYON: RESPONSE TO OPERATIONS OF GLEN CANYON DAM Duncan T. Patten, PhD Chief Scientist Glen Canyon Environmental Studies May 1993

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Contents     Introduction   34      Purpose of Long-Term Monitoring in Grand Canyon   34      A Monitoring Philosophy for Grand Canyon   35      Critical Attributes   35      Management Objectives   37      The Geographical Scope of Monitoring   39      Information Management   40     Long-Term Monitoring Program   40      Quantity and Quality of Water   40      Lake Powell   40      Colorado River Mainstem   41     Dam Discharges   41     Water and Sediment Transport   41     Water Chemistry   43      Canyon Tributaries   43      Sediment Dynamics   44      Fishes and Aquatic Food Base   44      Aquatic Food Base   44      Fishes   45      Riparian Vegetation   46      Mainstem Vegetation and Habitats   46      Tributaries   47      Riparian Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat   47      Riparian Habitat   47      Invertebrates   48      Terrestrial Vertebrates   48      Endangered and Special Status Species   49      Cultural Resources   49      Physical Sites   49      Tribal Cultural and Spiritual Values and Concerns   50      Recreation   51      Power, Economic and Financial Impacts   52      Hydropower Supply   52      Economics and Finances   52     Literature Cited   53

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam     Addenda   54      Addendum 1. Background and Input Attributes and Benchmark Sites   54      The Role of External Factors and Benchmark Sites   54      Meteorology/Climate   55     Regional Meteorology/Climate   55     Hydrometeorology   55     Local Microclimate   55      Addendum 2. Information Management   56      Characteristics of Long-Term Monitoring Projects   56      Development of Long-Term Monitoring Projects   56      Protocols for Data Collection and Processing   57      Data Base Management   57      Management of the Monitoring Program   58      GIS and Remote Sensin   58

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam LONG-TERM MONITORING IN GLEN AND GRAND CANYON: RESPONSE TO OPERATIONS OF GLEN CANYON DAM INTRODUCTION Grand Canyon is an internationally significant natural landscape feature. Ironically, the Colorado River, the physical feature responsible for carving Grand Canyon, is now the most heavily regulated large river in North America. The physical hydrology of Colorado stream flow, as with the associated sediment load and dissolved constituents transported by the river, have changed dramatically since closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Numerous studies, including those sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Studies since 1982, have documented these changes. The Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 has directed the Secretary of the Interior to establish and implement long-term monitoring programs and activities that will ensure that Glen Canyon Dam is operated “… in such a manner as to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve the values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established…”. In response to this directive, the Glen Canyon Dam EIS resource management agencies and interests have initiated the planning of a long-term monitoring program which would permit continued evaluation of the effect of Glen Canyon Dam operations, as described in the Record of Decision, on the riverine environment of Grand Canyon. This document describes the long-term monitoring program. It does not project costs for any of the long-term monitoring program components. These would be determined on (1) availability of funds, (2) priorities assigned to the various monitoring components, and (3) costs proposed by those entities responding to the “Request for Proposals” which would be used to develop and select the detailed methodologies and procedures of this long-term monitoring program. Purpose of Long-Term Monitoring in Grand Canyon Long-term monitoring is used for a variety of purposes including, but not limited to, assessing (1) baseline conditions, (2) trends of attributes, (3) implementation of a decision, (4) effectiveness of a decision, (5) project impacts, (6) model efficacy, and (7) compliance to a set of standards. Many of these purposes are attributable to the evaluation of the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam operations. Long-term monitoring would be designed to provide regular feedback for adaptive management. This permits mid-course adjustments in the operations of the dam to ensure achievement of the goals of the EIS and the management objectives of the resource management agencies and interests. Long-term monitoring would also be used to determine variability over time and space of the resources being monitored. This needs to be done in conjunction with appropriate controls to evaluate the source of the variability. In addition, long-term monitoring would provide clues for identifying associations, understanding system behavior, and guiding future process-based research.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Long-term monitoring is the “repetition of measurements over time for the purpose of detecting change” (MacDonald et al 1991). These measurements, because they are made over a period of time, are different from an inventory, which is a measurement, or a number of measurements, made at a specific point in time. Inventories, or establishing baseline conditions, are often the first step in conducting a monitoring effort, but the measurement of possible change over time is the distinguishing attribute of a monitoring effort. Research, on the other hand, is used to test or understand the relationships between and among various attributes of the system. Inventory and monitoring information may be used in research. This document addresses only the long-term monitoring program which emphasizes measurement of those parameters, or attributes, that might change with time and whose change might be related to operations of Glen Canyon. This proposed long-term monitoring program for the river corridor in Grand Canyon would not be considered equivalent to a long-term monitoring plan for all of Grand Canyon, or in fact for the whole river corridor ecosystem. Although the difference between the two objectives may seem to be semantic, it is critical to distinguish this program, whose intent is the monitoring of the effectiveness of the prescribed operations of Glen Canyon Dam in meeting the objectives of the EIS, the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act and the management objectives of the resource management agencies and interests, from a general ecosystem monitoring plan for the river corridor. Clearly, the two objectives are closely aligned because it is impossible to interpret change related to dam operations without understanding the broad range of ecological interactions. Nevertheless, the ultimate purpose of this program is to monitor ecological changes that are related to dam operations. A Monitoring Philosophy for Grand Canyon Grand Canyon is a unique environment. It is also a highly regulated system, both in terms of river flows and use. Its uniqueness demands careful stewardship. In the face of evolving scientific understanding about Grand Canyon's riverine ecosystem, it is not yet possible to identify only a few attributes that characterize the entire system. In light of this uncertainty, it would be irresponsible to restrict monitoring within the river corridor ecosystem to a very small number of attributes and assume that all other attributes are related to those measured. This proposed program attempts to strike a balance between the extremes of (1) very restricted monitoring which recognizes the impacts of scientific study on the essence of what Grand Canyon means to most humans, and (2) full measurement of all ecosystem attributes predicated on a belief that an unmeasured parameter might be critical at a later time. Critical Attributes This proposed program emphasizes measurement of attributes deemed critical by the resource management agencies and interests (re: Draft EIS), and the scientific community which has studied the system for decades, for evaluating the effects of alternative operations of Glen Canyon Dam. The prediction and significance of the attribute response to dam operations is discussed in the monitoring program section for each attribute. Under the long-term monitoring program, responses of these attributes would be used in adaptive management decisions. These attributes are:

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Quantity and quality of water from Lake Powell and in the Canyon. annual streamflows discharge rates and spill volume and frequency chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water in Lake Powell and the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead Sediment dynamics and sediment budget. stored riverbed sand sandbar topography elevated sandbar erosion dynamics of debris fans and rapids Fish. aquatic food base reproduction, recruitment and growth of native fishes reproduction, recruitment and growth of non-native warmwater and coolwater fishes including trout Vegetation. area of woody riparian plants and species composition area of emergent marsh plants and species composition Wildlife and wildlife habitat. area and species composition of riparian habitat for associated vertebrates and invertebrates aquatic food base for wintering waterfowl Endangered and other special status species, their habitat and food base. humpback chub razorback sucker bald eagle peregrine falcon southwestern willow flycatcher belted kingfisher Kanab ambersnail other federal and state species of concern Cultural resources. archaeological sites directly, indirectly, or potentially affected Native American traditional cultural properties directly, indirectly, or potentially affected Recreation. fishing trips and angler safety day rafting trips attributes and access white-water rafting trip attributes, camping beaches, safety, and wilderness values net economic value and regional economics

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Powerplant supply of hydropower to network and customers at lowest costs. changes in power operations power marketing benefits lost or gained Non-use valuation. Values placed on Glen and Grand Canyon riverine system by the public This program also adopts a conservative approach of measuring attributes which reasonably might be affected by dam operations and for which no surrogate attributes exist. However, this program does not propose measurement of those attributes clearly unrelated to dam operations or which are adequately represented by other parameters. It also emphasizes use of data collected in Grand Canyon that are not field intensive. Wherever possible, monitoring should be conducted using non-invasive means. To reduce the overall impact and cost of this program, data generated from other complementary long-term monitoring programs in the Grand Canyon region (e.g., Lake Powell long-term studies, and the Programmatic Agreement for Compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act) would be used when appropriate for evaluating the effects of the operations of Glen Canyon Dam. There are also background and input data collected from other sources (e.g., climatological and hydrological data) that are critical to interpretation of the long-term monitoring information. These types of data are discussed in the addenda. Lastly, this program is designed to respond to the long-term missions, goals and management objectives of the resource management agencies and interests. Acceptance of changing conditions of each of the above attributes as it responds to the environment created by the prescribed dam operation is contingent upon these management objectives. A change in an attribute, determined through the long-term monitoring program, may represent a deviation from an acceptable condition (determined by management agencies and interests) that would trigger consideration of suggested changes in dam operations as described in the “Adaptive Management” section of chapter II. The long-term monitoring program would, therefore, use methodologies that offer appropriate information about the response of the critical attributes to enable an Adaptive Management Work Group to evaluate these changes in light of the overall management objectives for “the Canyon”. Management Objectives The following statements represent an abbreviated version of the management objectives of each of the resource management agencies and interests. For many of these agencies and interests, these management objectives for specific attributes represent goals rather than existing baseline conditions at initiation of long-term monitoring or response conditions at some point after the effects of dam operations have occurred. Although not specifically stated below, they also recognize the importance of existing laws and statutes, for example, the Endangered Species Act, Trust responsibilities to Indian Tribes, and Cultural Acts. A more comprehensive statement for each interest is presented in chapter II of the DEIS.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Invertebrates It is unlikely that a completed baseline of invertebrate assemblages will be available when long-term monitoring begins, although there presently exists a large database. Monitoring key taxa, when such are identified, may permit evaluation of responses to dam operations. An inventory of the invertebrate fauna would be established by the National Park Service and Hualapai Tribe as part of a general inventory program, but an extensive and intensive long-term monitoring program would even then disallow more than an estimate of invertebrate responses to variation in river discharges. Thus, as part of a long-term research program, it is essential to establish the invertebrate assemblages (e.g., selected taxa) that are associated with different riverine and shoreline vegetation communities. Long-term monitoring of these vegetation communities may in this way be used as a surrogate for estimating responses of invertebrates to operational changes. Terrestrial Vertebrates The intensity of effort required for sampling terrestrial vertebrates (herpetofauna, mammals and birds), and the low potential for distinguishing between responses to non-dam changes and those caused by dam operations, limit usefulness of long-term population studies as indicators of change in the riverine ecosystem. In addition, baseline data to support a long-term monitoring program are minimal (except for avifauna), indicating the need for more inventory of terrestrial vertebrates by the National Park Service and the Hualapai Tribe. When inventory is complete and habitat relations of selected assemblages (especially herpetofauna and birds) are established, data from long-term monitoring of vegetation and other habitat components would indicate the probable status of many terrestrial vertebrate populations. Avifaunal data are perhaps most extensive (see Brown 1989), and a substantial baseline may, in fact, be available if synthesized with the long-term monitoring program in mind. Avifaunal inventory and monitoring, if undertaken, would emphasize riparian-obligate species, resident non-obligate species, migrant species in a biogeographic/geomorphic/seasonal context, listed or special status taxa (e.g., bald eagle, peregrine falcon, southwestern willow flycatcher, belted kingfisher), and wintering and breeding waterfowl. Locations of birds and nests observed would be mapped on the GIS system within the Schmidt and Graf (1990) canyon reach designations. Intensive sampling would occur at the large sample sites (also to be used for herpetofauna and mammals, see below). Nest sites would be mapped and habitat described. [Annual survey of wintering bald eagles/trout population relationships at Nankoweap, representative of the impacts of aquatic responses on listed avian populations, would continue into the long-term monitoring using techniques compatible with those in Brown and Stevens (1991).] Monitoring of vertebrates, if determined to be essential, would require large study sites where full descriptions of vegetation, soils and topography are available. Spot sampling elsewhere might also be required to expand the long-term monitoring data base. For herpetofauna and mammals, a seasonal sampling schedule is recommended. Establishment of a baseline is necessary for assessing population changes over time and the expense and effort to do this may be too great to include terrestrial vertebrates in the long-term monitoring program. This does not exclude the necessity of the National Park Service and

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam the Hualapai Tribe in initiating or continuing its inventory of these taxa, but not as part of the long-term monitoring program. Endangered and Special Status Species Information on the response of endangered and special status species to dam operation may be crucial to the species' recovery. In addition to their special status, these species are considered important because many were part of the pre-dam ecosystem. The objective of the long-term monitoring program is to track the populations of these species as they respond to changes in their habitat and food base caused by dam operations and other factors which are expected to enhance the chances of their survival and/or recovery. Of the list presented earlier in this document, humpback chub and razorback sucker would be monitored under the fish monitoring program, while the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, southwestern willow flycatcher, belted kingfisher and Kanab ambersnail would be monitored under the wildlife monitoring program. Cultural Resources Cultural resources include archaeological sites, traditional Indian cultural properties, and historical sites. All of these resources have the potential of being altered or lost through processes caused by dam operations as well as other factors, especially those within the discharge potential of the dam or along arroyos that may be influenced by loss of the sediment foundation. It is the objective of this long-term monitoring program to track the integrity of these resources over time and to determine possible mitigating measures when appropriate. Physical Sites The long-term monitoring program for physical sites would adopt the Programmatic Agreement for Compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act between the National Park Service, Indian Tribes, Bureau of Reclamation, the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, as the monitoring design under this long-term monitoring program. The important aspects of that agreement (from Balsom et al 1991) are presented here. To effectively monitor impacts of dam operations on cultural sites, baseline information must be complete, with accurate maps, descriptions, and photographs of each site having potential of being impacted. The long-term monitoring program must be sensitive to the fragile nature of sites, the dynamic geomorphic conditions under which they persist, and the delicate situations relative to Indian Tribes and agency responsibilities for their protection and preservation. The monitoring program must be designed to identify both the present condition of sites and actual changes resulting from dam operations and other factors. (Monitoring data would be used to guide mitigative measures to preserve sites in as pristine a condition as possible.)

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Not all sites would be monitored. An extensive representation of sites with evidence of impact by mainstem discharges, including flooding, would be included, while a smaller representative sample of sites not presently impacted by river flows would also be monitored. If observations indicate that specific sites within the population of sites from which the sample was selected show evidence of impacts from dam operations, these sites would be added to those monitored under the long-term monitoring program. Sites to be monitored would be categorized into the following groups from which decisions on intensity of monitoring can be made: (1) direct impact, inundation or bank cutting within the site area in recent years; (2) indirect impact A, bank slumpage or slope steepening adjacent to the site, and B, evidence within the site of accelerated erosion exacerbated by the proximity to river eroded sediments; (3) potential impact A, buried in or located on old river alluvium and below the 300,000 cfs discharge zone, and B, located below the 300,000 cfs discharge zone and not situated in or on river alluvium. Other impact categories dealing with arroyo cutting (from external causes not head cutting from the river), recreational use (unless evidence of changes in recreation resulting from dam operations), or sites located above the 300,000 cfs discharge zone are not included in this long-term monitoring program, but should be monitored under a continuing cultural site inventory and monitoring program of the National Park Service, the two efforts to be closely coordinated. Representative samples of sites would be chosen, randomly and non-randomly, within the above categories to insure that sites in the greatest danger of impact are closely monitored and remedial actions taken when required. Sites that have no potential for external impacts would be identified and used as controls. Schedule for monitoring cultural sites would be dependent on the baseline condition of the site. It is assumed that all sites will have been categorized and described, including geomorphological settings, prior to initiation of the long-term monitoring program. Sites that are directly impacted by river discharges (including loss of sediment foundation) would be monitored quarterly, while a sample of other sites (ca. 20%) would be visited annually. Selection of these latter sites would be based on sensitivity, tribal concerns and other factors determined by archaeologists, respective Indian Tribes and geologists. Sites which are not impacted by river discharges, but show impacts due to such factors as arroyo cutting, would be integrated with the long-term monitoring program. Annual aerial photo- or videographs would also be used to evaluate site changes, especially of those of sufficient size to allow remote sensing of change. This work would be coordinated with the sediment dynamics monitoring program. Sites with potential for rapid degradation would be monitored weekly through the use of oblique photography using hidden time-lapse cameras. If rapid loss is discovered, recovery archaeology and/or mitigation would immediately be initiated. Tribal Cultural and Spiritual Values and Tribal Concerns. Monitoring of tribal values and concerns with dam operations and impacts would be an integral part of the long-term monitoring program. Tribal attitudes and values may change over time, both in response to passing years but also as a result of actual or perceived changes in the Canyon ecosystem or other influences or factors. The objective of this program is to monitor these values and attitudes on an ongoing basis and to structure them

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam to allow for quantitative analytical techniques and to determine possible changes in attitude or values in relation to dam operations. Each affected Tribe should develop and implement a set of visitations on an annual basis. These visitations should include established sets of questions, determined by the Tribe and comparable over time, dealing with the Canyon resources. Questions and timing of visitations should be determined by each Tribe in cooperation with the organization responsible for the overall long-term monitoring program. Recreation Recreational use of the Canyon is of economic and environmental importance. As a major use of the Canyon, recreation creates jobs and financial support within the region, but also is a significant component of impact analysis. The preferred alternative in the EIS has considered impacts on recreation and has attempted to enhance the recreational experience in the Canyon and increase safety. Also of importance are the possible impacts of recreation on Canyon resources. The objectives of the long-term monitoring program, therefore, are to determine whether recreation is enhanced and safety improved over impacts of the historic operation of the dam, and whether changes in recreational patterns resulting from the selected dam operational alternative have any effect on the Canyon. To determine whether dam operations are affecting the pattern and amount of use in the Canyon, data on use and changes resulting from recreation would be compiled annually. Such data can be utilized to assess changes in use, but also may help determine causes of some changes in other resources (e.g., fish populations, and beach sizes or qualities, etc.). Recreation use data are available from or can be obtained through the National Park Service, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Native American tribes, and fishing guide, angler and boatman surveys, including the following: (1) Whitewater rafting, including commercial, private and tribal enterprises. Data would include user days, length of trip, put-in and takeout points, beaches used, and safety (accident) records. (2) Angler uses, including commercial and private use above Lees Ferry. Data would include angler user days, fish catch data, and safety (accident) records. (3) Miscellaneous uses, e.g., birdwatching, use of riparian habitats (both mainstem and tributaries) for hiking, sightseeing within the Canyon, etc. to be evaluated through National Park Service and Hualapai Tribe permitting records, Game and Fish surveys, and other means. Survey results would be summarized and evaluated annually. Beach area data would be monitored using aerial video- or photography at the same discharge levels each year. Changes in beach camping area, above high discharge levels, can be determined through digitized video- or aerial photographs and validated on a sample basis through ground truthing coordinated with beach surveys under the sediment dynamics component of the long-term monitoring program. To determine possible reasons for changes in recreational use, recreationist 's values and concerns would be monitored on a five year basis or following unusual events. This information would be gathered using surveys of appropriate user groups. Value evaluation is separate from values determined using non-use value methodologies. The former deals

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam directly with use and experiences in the Canyon while the latter are based on no direct contact with the Canyon. Recreationists' values to be monitored using surveys that deal with the relative value of Canyon experiences include: (1) satisfaction with existing discharge levels, (2) perceptions of effects of dam operations, (3) attitudes about congestion at beaches or high level visitor sites, and (4) attitudes toward researcher/monitoring teams in the Canyon. Information gathered during the pre-long-term monitoring period would be used as the baseline for comparison and evaluation of change in these values and perceptions. Power, Economic and Financial Impacts Hydropower Supply Hydropower supply is an integral part of the economy of the region. Changes in power operations resulting from changes in annual dam operations would affect the power supply and its costs. The objectives of this program are to determine the impact of changes in dam operations on hydropower outputs and the concomitant power marketing and economics of the region, a concern of those agencies tied to hydropower production. Actual power generation would be monitored on an hourly basis as input to assessing the consequences of dam operations on power economics. Power generation is also a method for estimating water discharge rates and volumes. Economics and Finances Long-term monitoring would include the maintenance of a current data base for future power resource economic reviews to determine the consequences of the anticipated changes in Glen Canyon Dam operations. A periodic review of the electric power market would determine whether new information supports decisions based upon previous forecasts. The Power Resources Committee (PRC) Phase II effort would be used as the basis for the periodic review. For each review, current measured parameters can be compared to the risk and sensitivity analysis work completed in Phase II studies. If the current measures or assumptions fall within the range of assumptions made in Phase II, then the impacts can be determined from this information. Conclusion can then be made regarding the degree of influence changes in certain measured parameters (i.e., load growth, fuel escalation rates) would have on the economic and financial impacts. A more detailed review would involve assessing the significance of changes in the value or financial benefits of power and recreational uses which might impact the economic and social benefits of changes in Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operation. A detailed review would take place when a different operational alternative for GCD is proposed. The decision to go to this level of analysis, based in part on a recommendation of the Adaptive Management Working Group, would be made on a case-by-case basis. In preparation for these reviews, a data base of revenues, rates, supplies, purchases and loads must be established through monitoring the following parameters: (1) annual revenue requirements of Western Area Power Administration (Western), (2) rate charges for

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Western wholesale power, (3) regional power supply adequacy for Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) annual reports (moving, 10-year projection), (4) historical regional power loads from WSCC, (5) annual evaluation of costs of power purchases and sales within and outside the region available from EIA, (6) updates of utility data already collected by the PRC. Concomitant with evaluation of impacts on power revenues, should be an evaluation of impacts on the economics and revenues of other uses of Glen and Grand Canyon. These uses especially include recreational revenues, but changes in other regional revenue sources resulting from the selected dam operation would be considered. The detailed review would follow procedures established by the PRC of Glen Canyon Environmental Studies to evaluate the economic impacts of various dam operation alternatives for the Glen Canyon EIS. If required, additional transmission related and short-term operational reviews may be necessary with any further changes at Glen Canyon Dam. Evaluation of the non-use values of the Glen and Grand Canyon riverine system would also be part of the economic and financial component of the long-term monitoring program. It is possible that the public 's perception of the Canyon may change as a result of the future operations of Glen Canyon Dam; thus it is valuable to determine this perception through use of non-use economic methodologies. LITERATURE CITED (An extensive reference listing of ecological and environmental impact studies within Glen and Grand Canyons can be found in the EIS.) Balsom, J., et al 1991. The Grand Canyon River corridor survey project: archaeological survey along the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Separation Canyon. Report on file, Grand Canon National Park and the Bureau of Reclamation, Flagstaff. Brown, B.T. 1989. Ecology of riparian breeding birds along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Coop. National Park Resources Stud. Unit Tech. Report No 25, NPS. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson. Brown, B.T. and L. E. Stevens. 1991. Influences of fluctuating flows from Glen Canyon Dam and effects of human disturbance on wintering bald eagles along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. NPS Cooperative Parks Study Unit. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. (unpublished annual report). MacDonald, L.H. 1991. Monitoring guidelines to evaluate effects of forestry activities on streams in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Water Division. EPA/910/9-91-001.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Schmidt, J.C. and J.B. Graf. 1990. Aggradation and degradation of alluvial sand deposits, 1965-1986, Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1493, Washington, D.C. Stevens, L. E. 1992. Long-term monitoring of riparian biotic resources in the Colorado River corridor, Glen and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In, National Research Council, Long-term monitoring workshop. ADDENDA Addendum 1. Background and Input Attributes and Benchmark (Unaffected) Sites Background and input attributes are those factors whose variation may be used to help explain changes in the mainstem Colorado River corridor ecosystem. They occur or are located above and/or below the dam, but are not those attributes along the mainstem corridor influenced by dam operations. Information on background and input attributes is important to archive for use by the long-term monitoring program on effects of dam operations, however, gathering of this information is not part of that program. The Role of External Factors and Benchmark (Unaffected) Sites Although long-term monitoring of the Grand Canyon ecosystem may detect temporal change which might be associated with dam operations, other possible causative factors, such as climate, will exist. Thus, identification of external factors that may be regularly monitored for other purposes such as climatological data, and identification and monitoring of unregulated analogues to the Grand Canyon ecosystem could provide an opportunity to distinguish “natural” change from dam-related change. Benchmark (unaffected) sites are locations that might be considered as control sites similar in geomorphology to the Grand Canyon that can be used to analyze differential influences of dam and non-dam variables. Unfortunately, there is insufficient scientific data on which to identify unregulated analogues to the Grand Canyon at this time. Candidate areas include Cataract Canyon and the Grand Canyon tributaries. The latter are only relevant for biological parameters. Research should be considered in Cataract Canyon to determine its possible analogue status as an “unregulated Grand Canyon”. At a later time, the National Park Service might propose a companion Cataract Canyon monitoring program as one basis for interpreting environmental change in Grand Canyon. Some ecological monitoring of tributary conditions in Grand Canyon is included in this program, however, such efforts would be limited. Further research is necessary to determine the nature of appropriate comparisons between the “big river ecosystem” of the Colorado River and the “small river ecosystems” of the tributaries. The external factors that would be used for differentiating between natural and dam caused changes are discussed below.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Meteorology/Climate Regional Meteorology/Climate. Hydrology of the Glen Canyon/Grand Canyon region is a consequence of regional precipitation and temperature patterns. Tributaries, especially the Little Colorado River, Paria River and Kanab Creek, are all important in the dynamics of the river. As part of the background data base for long-term monitoring, and for interpreting different causes of change in the Colorado River ecosystem, it is essential to include climatological data from NOAA weather stations that influence major tributaries to the Colorado River above and below Glen Canyon Dam. The minimum set of climatological stations would include: Page, Jacob Lake, Kanab, Cameron, Supai, Pipe Springs NM and Peach Springs. Additional stations at the headwaters of the Little Colorado River, Kanab Creek and Paria River would also be considered. When necessary, data from stations at the headwaters of the San Juan, Green and Colorado Rivers would be archived. Hydrometeorology. In addition to climatological data, it is essential to archive information on hydrometeorological changes. These include not only precipitation (part of climatological data), but snowpack and runoff in the major tributaries to Lake Powell and the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam. Hydrometeorological data are presently collected for some of the tributaries of Lake Powell. Snowpack measurements are also a regular part of the predictive models used by the Bureau of Reclamation in its forecasts for annual and monthly releases of water from Glen Canyon Dam. These data, however, would not only be used for predictive purposes but as part of the overall data set archived for the monitoring program. Local Microclimate. There is a very limited set of local meteorological stations in the Grand Canyon, the primary one being at Phantom Ranch (Grand Canyon NP). Changes in the Colorado River riverine/riparian ecosystem may be a response to non-anthropogenic environmental changes as well as changes or influences from dam operations. As part of its inventory and monitoring program, NPS would need to upgrade and add to local climatological stations to give adequate coverage for interpreting local climatological influences. The Phantom Ranch station would be instrumented to measure solar radiation in addition to temperature and precipitation. Complete weather stations would be established at Lees Ferry. The Hualapai Tribe should add a complete weather station at Diamond Creek near the river as part of its long-term resource studies. Other stations within the Canyon, for example, Indian Gardens, would be upgraded to full climatological station status. Data from these stations then become part of the background archives for the long-term monitoring program. The importance of upgrading or adding climatological stations for data input into the long-term monitoring program cannot be over emphasized. There is such a critical need for this information, for example, the affects of solar insolation and canyon temperature on water temperature, that this effort would be considered as an integral part of the long-term monitoring program.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Addendum 2. Information Management Characteristics of Long-term Monitoring Essential to any long-term monitoring program is that it addresses management needs, specifically, it would be designed to ensure that management objectives are being met. It would also be designed to recognize the temporal characteristics of the system being monitored. In the case of the Grand Canyon, long-term monitoring in response to operations of Glen Canyon Dam would continue indefinitely, or as long as the dam is operable. Periodic review of the program is necessary to determine the intensity of the monitoring program. The potential longevity of this program would be recognized in the selection or establishment of institutions that can maintain continuity while carrying out monitoring activities. Because continuity in methodology and procedures is essential to ensure comparability of data, no monitoring activity should be based on the sole contributions of any one individual but would be aligned with an agency or long-term organization. Monitoring activities must also recognize the spatial scale of the resources. The enormity of Grand Canyon requires that projects actually be a sample, and that an hierarchy of spatial scales (e.g., nesting or representative sample units) would be used. Selection of sample units or areas would also consider the sensitivity or fragility of the system, thus methodologies would leave as small a “foot print ” as possible. The type, frequency and location of measurements would, however, invariably follow from the objectives of the long-term monitoring program. Lastly, the long-term monitoring program would be sufficiently flexible to permit initiation of “new” monitoring activities to respond to transient events such as floods or tributary sediment pulses, and to changes in direction which may result from changes in management goals. Development of Long-term Monitoring Activities Potential use and integrity of monitoring activities is dependent on their initial procedural design. Each proposed monitoring activity must be reviewed by other workers prior to implementation to ensure comparability of data, prevent overlapping efforts, and to encourage interaction and integration by using comparable spatial and temporal boundaries. Considerable resources would need to be devoted to careful documentation of procedures, quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), definition of variability (i.e., defining uncertainty), etc. This would reduce the total amount of data which can be collected, but it is necessary to provide the documentation for future data use and interpretation. All participants in the long-term monitoring program must be required as a condition of participation to have their data internally and externally reviewed and entered into a common data base system on a regular and timely basis. Field data must be carefully referenced to known, consistent locations (georeferenced). These reference points must be consistent among monitoring and research activities, and included as an integral part of the GIS data management system.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Effective monitoring activities must be based on a thorough knowledge of the physical and biological characteristics of the system. Because the baseline information may be limited for some areas and resources, and methodologies may not be fully tested, many activities would be initiated as “pilot projects” and the comparability of the data tested before being settled upon as a major part of the long-term monitoring program. Trade-off between minimum detectable effects and monitoring efforts and costs must furthermore be accepted as part of the evaluation procedures for selection of monitoring projects within the long-term monitoring program. Protocols for Data Collection and Processing Each component of the long-term monitoring program must have an explicit, detailed protocol which spells out: (1) objectives, (2) experimental design, (3) procedures for data collection, QA/QC, data analysis, data storage, and reporting. This allows anyone to replicate measurements and to evaluate them in a consistent statistical manner. Where appropriate, each experimental design would be evaluated for statistical integrity. The protocol for each component would specify the level of knowledge and training required for those collecting field data, analyzing samples, entering data, and interpreting the data. There would be a comparable protocol for managing the data base. Scientists collecting the data would be involved with data interpretation. Although the time frame of the long-term monitoring program extends well beyond the participation period of any one scientist, it is anticipated that those who collect the data would be familiar with the Grand Canyon and may use the data as part of ongoing research programs. This connection of data collection and interpretation would result in data being collected appropriately and efficiently. Releasing and sharing data must be a requirement for every project. Those collecting original information, however, should be allowed a reasonable time for analysis and publication before releasing the data to the public. Trust must be established among data collectors and managers to ensure transfer and integration of information. Each monitoring project would prepare an annual report using a consistent and defined format, including reports from data base managers. Data Base Management A general principle is that all data would be freely available. In some cases, however, such as archaeological-site data, data that Indian Tribes define as sensitive, or information on localized endangered species, a level of confidentiality may be necessary. A centralized, integrated data base is necessary to avoid duplication of effort and facilitate exchanges of information among projects. This includes incorporation of information from past monitoring, inventories and research. Each file in the data base must be cross-referenced to files which document data-collection procedures, variability, and uncertainties. All data would be copied and stored in at least two locations to maximize security.

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Review of the Draft Federal Long-Term Monitoring Plan for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam Certain kinds of data and collected information are unsuitable for storage in a traditional computerized data base. These include audio and video recordings, for example, as well as biological and geological specimens and copies of historical literature and photographs. This information and collections need to be archived following procedures appropriate to their unique characteristics, and cross-referenced to other information. Management of the Monitoring Program The resource management agencies and interests have established an Adaptive Management Working Group that would oversee the management and archiving of the long-term monitoring program and data (see chapter in EIS). This group would evaluate the findings of the long-term monitoring program. This evaluation may lead to recommendations for changes in dam operations to ensure compliance with the objectives of the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act. Although no specific institution has been selected for the actual management of the long-term monitoring program or archiving of monitoring information, an organizational structure needs to be set in place prior to initiation of any phase of long-term monitoring of the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations. It would need to absorb the ongoing program of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies which has managed data collection efforts to date and has embarked on an information management program as well (Scientific Information Management system - SIM). GIS and Remote Sensing The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for data storage is an important component of the data management process; however, not all data can be put into GIS format. GIS can be an important analytical tool for integrating and comparing spatially based data, but the applicability of this technique would depend upon the particular objectives of each monitoring project. Each project would specify which GIS data layers are required. The validity of the existing GIS reaches in the Canyon would be tested for representativeness or designation as critical reaches. Usefulness of these reaches for the long-term monitoring program would be evaluated once the objectives and priorities for long-term monitoring are established. The use of satellite and remote sensing (e.g., aerial video- and photography) data would also be evaluated relative to the level of detail needed for each monitoring project (satellite data would probably be too coarse for use in monitoring in the Canyon).