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Biographical Sketches of Pane] Members and Staff TAMAR D. BERMANN is a senior researcher at the Work Research Institutes in Oslo, Norway, and teaches social policy at the University of Oslo. Previously she was senior lecturer at the Roskilde University Center in Denmark. She has also served as a research fellow at the Max Planck Research Centre for Psycho- pathology and Psychotherapy in Munich, West Germany, and as a teacher at the University of Munich. She has served on technology research committees in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway; worked with the women's studies center of the Norwegian Research Council; and participated in the research program of the Council of Europe. Her action-oriented research focuses on learning and knowledge acquisition in connection with organizational and technological change, particularly in journalism, nursing, librarianship, and office work. Her scholarly interests include epistemology and the history of science. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Munich and a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Vienna. She is a native of Vienna, Austria. FRANCINE D. BLAU is professor of economics and labor and industrial rela- tions at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is a former vice- president of the Midwest Economics Association and was a member of the American Economic Association Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession. She currently serves on the National Research Coun- cil's Panel on Pay Equity Research. Her research has centered on women's economic status and discrimination against women and minorities. She has also studied a variety of issues related to immigration, job search and turnover, union impact, and racial differences in wealth. She has served as an expert witness in employment discrimination cases and testified in Congress on the 201

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202 COMPUTER CHIPS AND PAPER CLIPS Equal Rights Amendment and the economic status of women. She has a B.S. degree from Cornell University in industrial and labor relations and A. M. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Harvard University. DENNIS CHAMOT is associate director of the AFL-CIO's Department for Pro- fessional Employees. Prior to his work in organized labor, he was employed as a research chemist by E. I. du Pont de Nemours. He has for several years had a particular interest in the effects of new technologies on employment. He has served on numerous panels related to this issue, including the National Science Foundation Advisory Council; the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council (NRC); the Committee on the Edu- cation and Utilization of Engineers of the NRC; the Labor Research Advisory Council of the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the Council of the American Chemical Society. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (now the Polytechnic Institute of New York), a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Illinois, and an M.B.A. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. MARTIN L. ERNST is vice-president, advanced information technologies, at Arthur D. Little, Inc. His early career was devoted to operations research for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force and later for Arthur D. Little. More recently he has concentrated on the impacts of technology on society, businesses, and other types of institutions, with particular emphasis on the influences ofthe new information technologies. He received a B.S. degree in physics from the Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology in 1941. Roster L. FELDBERG is an associate director of labor relations at the Massa- chusetts Nurses Association. Her background includes both scholarly and ad- vocacy work in a wide variety of settings, from academia to public interest and labor groups. For several years her research interests have focused on clerical work. Recently she was a Radcliffe research scholar at the Murray Research Center at Radcliffe College, where she continued research on women clerical workers. Previously she was a coprincipal investigator for a major project on the impact of job conditions on women clerical workers, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. She has also taught in Boston University's Depart- ment of Sociology and at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland and has been active in public policy debates on comparable worth, the interaction of work and family life, and the implications of technological change on women work- ers. She has also served as an adviserto the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S Congress, 9-to-5, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. She has a B.A. from the University of Illinois and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan, all in sociology.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 203 HEIDI I. HARTMANN is study director of the Committee on Women s Employ- ment and Related Social Issues, the Panel on Technology and Women's Em- ployment, and the Panel on Pay Equity Research at the National Research Council (NRC). She has edited orcoedited a number ofNRC reports on compa- rable worth and other women's employment issues. Previously she taught eco- nomics on the Graduate Faculty at the New School for Social Research. Her research has concentrated on employment issues related to women and minori- ties, particularly discrimination and internal labor markets; women's economic independence; and political economy and feminist theory. She has a B.A from Swarthmore College and M.Ph. and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University, all in economics. WILLIAM N. HUBBARD, JR., recently retired as president of the Upjohn Com- pany. Pie taught medicine at New York University and served as dean of the University of Michigan Medical School (1959-1970) and professor of internal medicine (1964-1970) before joining the Upjohn Company in 1970. He was elected president of Upjohn in 1974. He is a member of numerous medical honorary societies and has served several medical and educational associations in various capacities. A former member of the National Science Board, he currently serves as a consultant. He is currently chairman of the Council on Health Care Technology of the Institute of Medicine. He received an A.B. degree from Columbia University in 1942 and an M.D. degree in 1944 from New York University. GLORIA T. JOHNSON has been with the International Union of Electronic. Electrical, Technical, Salaried & Machine Workers, AFL-CIO, since 1954 and is currently director of the Department of Social Action, responsible in particu- lar for education and women's activities. Prior to 1954, she taught for a brief period at Howard University and served as an economist with the U. S. Depart- ment of Labor and the Wage Stabilization Board. She is also chair of the IUE Women's Council and in this position is a member of the IUE Executive Board. She serves as chair of the AFL-CIO Committee on Salaried and Professional Women and has been treasurer of the Coalition of Labor Union Women since its founding. She also serves many other educational, labor, women's, and com- munity organizations. She received both B.A. and M.A. degrees from Howard University. ROBERT E. KRAUT is a social psychologist on the technical staff at Bell Com- munications Research and an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Psychology at Princeton University. He has previously held positions at Bell Laboratories, Cornell University, and the University of Pennsylvania. His re- search focuses on the way people judge themselves and others, on interpersonal

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204 COMPUTER CHIPS AND PAPER CLIPS interaction, and on the social impact of new information technologies. He has a B.A. in English and social relations from Lehigh University and a Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University. SHIRLEY M. MALCOM is head of the Office of Opportunities in Science of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She served previously as a program officer in the Directorate for Science Education of the National Science Foundation (NSF), in previous positions at AAAS, and as assistant professor of biology at the University of North Carolina, Wilmington. She serves a large number of organizations concerned with educational equity for women, minorities, and disabled persons, science and technology policy, and human resource issues. She has served as chair of the NSF Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Technology, as a commissioner of the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, and as a member of the Advisory Council of the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy and the Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. Malcom has a B.S. from the University of Washington and an M. A. from the University of Califor- nia, Los Angeles, both in zoology, and a Ph.D. in ecology from the Pennsylva- nia State University. MICHAEL J. PIORE is professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has worked on a variety of problems in labor economics and industrial relations, including technological change, minority workers, migra- tion, and union structure and organization. He developed the dual labor market hypothesis, which is an attempt to explain the economic problems of marginal workers, particularly racial and ethnic minorities, in terms of the types of jobs to which they are confined and the role these jobs perform in the functioning of the economy. More recently he has examined the transformation in economic activity from mass production to flexible specialization. Convinced that the political, social, and historical forces that affect economic institutions are criti- cal, he is currently exploring new forms of business organization, new manage- rial practices, innovations in union structures and collective bargaining, and changes in the role of government, particularly state and local government, in the economy. Piore holds B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Harvard University. FREDERICK A. ROESCH is senior vice-president for Citicorp/Citibank's Insti- tutional Global Electronic Markets activities. He joined Citibank in 1964 and has served as an off~cerin branches in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand. In 1973 he was appointed head of Citicorp's worldwide venture capital activities. Named to head personnel planning and development for Citicorp in 1977, he assumed his current position in June 1985. He is a graduate of Dartmouth College and has an M.A. from the University of California, Berkeley.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 205 TERESA A. SULLIVAN is associate professor of sociology at the University of Texas at Austin, where she is also associate director of the Population Research Center and chair of the Women's Studies Steering Committee. Her scholarly work investigates marginal incorporation into the economy and includes work on underemployment, studies of sex discrimination in fringe benefits, and stud- ies of immigrant workers, particularly women. She is currently completing the data collection phase of a large study of consumer bankruptcy. She previously served on the NRC Panel on Immigration Statistics. She has a B.A. from James Madison College of Michigan State University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology, both from the University of Chicago. Louise A. navy is professor of history and sociology on the Graduate Fac- ulty of the New School for Social Research and chair of its Committee on Historical Studies. Previously she taught at Michigan State University, the Uni- versity of Michigan, and at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. She is member of the Executive Committee of the Board of the Social Science Research Council, the Council ofthe American Historical Association, and the Panel on Technology and Employment of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy at the National Academy of Sciences. Her cur- rent research includes a comparative historical study of the state, class, and family in French cities; she is also completing work on the labor force and class formation in late-nineteenth-century Milan. She received an A.B. from Douglass College, an M.A. from Boston University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Toronto. DONALD J. TREIMAN is professor of sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. His research interests center on the comparative study of social stratification and social mobility. He has studied problems of occupational clas- sification and measurement extensively, in particular analyzing occupational prestige data from 60 countries. Previously he served as study director of the Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis at the National Re- search Council, which produced reports on job evaluation, comparable worth, and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles; he was also study director of the Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, which produced two volumes on the value and usefulness of basic research. He has a B.A. from Reed College and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago, all in sociology. ROBERT K. YIN is chairman of the board of COSMOS Corporation, having served as its first president from 1980 to 1985. He conducts research on a variety of topics at COSMOS, a social science research and consulting firm, including the evaluation of neighborhood programs initiated by the Ford Foun- dation and the MacArthur Foundation; economic development and high-tech-

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206 COMPUTER CHIPS AND PAPER CLIPS nology firms; and the use of office automation and other advanced technologies (e.g., robotics and artificial intelligence) by organizations. Previously he worked for eight years at the Rand Corporation. He has a B.A. from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in psychology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PATRICIA ZAVELLA is assistant professor of community studies at the Univer- sity of California, Santa Cruz. Her research has focused on occupational segre- gation in the California canning industry, Mexican-American women workers, and the impact of women's production employment in the electronics, apparel, and canning industries on family structure. She is a member of the Silicon Valley Research Group. She has a B.A. degree from Pitzer College and an M.A. from the University of California, Berkeley. Her Ph.D. in anthropology is also from the University of California, Berkeley.