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Index A Accountants and bookkeepers impacts of technological change on, 32, 38-40, 172 minorities employed as, 92 number of, 3, 4, 38-40, 91, 94 projected growthin, 114, 116, 121, 123 sex stratification of, 20, 40 unionization of, 38-39 Administrative support occupations female employment by race/ethnic origin, 93-95 number of workers in, 4-5, 67 sex ratios in, 4-5 see also Clerical employment/occupations; and specific occupations AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work, 17 Agriculture clerical staffing ratios, 96-97, 103 degrees awarded to women in, 78 displacement of workers, 1, 15, 82 employment growth in, 102 occupational groups of women employed i 18 American Association for Medical Systems and Informatics, 57 American Nurses' Association Council on Computer Applications in Nursing, 57 in. 207 Asian-Americans, clerical work force, 92-95 Association for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems, 57 AT&T EEOC consent decree, 28 technology-change committees, 29, 163 Automobile manufacturing, productivity and employment in, 15 B Baby boom cohorts, effect on labor markets, 16,69,79 Bank tellers career mobility, 46 employment trends of, 46-48, 88-90, 115-116, 120, 172 female employment by race/ethnic origin, 95 number of, 3, 5, 90 Banking computerization of, 9, 35, 44-48, 138, 155, 157, 164-165 educational requirements in, 47-48 employment growth, 13, 47, 59, 97-100, 106, 118 female employment in, 13, 45-46 occupational shifts in, 46, 48

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208 structural change in, 44-48, 106 see also Financial industry Barriers to employment, 43, 85-86, 169 see also Equal employment opportunity laws; Sex segregation in employment Bell, Alexander G., 26 Blacks in administrative support occupations, 43, 93-95 educational attainments, 77 family responsibilities of, 19 labor force participation rates, 69, 92 negative effects of automation on, 43 shifts in employment, 1 see also Minorities Bureau of Labor Statistics classification of occupations, 66, 138- 139 employment projections, 63, 71, 104- 117, 123-125, 143, 180 female labor force participation rates, 74 Bureau of the Census, classification of occupations, 66, 68, 143 C Career ladders/mobility in banking, 46 in insurance industry, 42-44 job segregation effects on, 19, 22 Career opportunities expansion of, for women, 173- 175 policies affecting, 64, 66, 68 Cashiers growth of employment of, 32, 49-50, 52, 88,90, 104, 107-108, 111-112, 118, 123 number of, 3, 90 quality of jobs for, 135 reclassification of, 3, 49-50, 107 sex segregation of, 19-20, 40, 50, 51 Child care, 69-70, 145 Childbearing, 69-70, 72-73 Clerical employment/occupations back-office jobs, 22, 41, 119, 126 declines in, 89, 106 definition, 2-3 demographic trends, 89-96 factors affecting future of, 64, 106 fastest-growing industries for, 106 fastest-growingjobs, 118 in financial industry, 16, 45-46, 63, 92, 96, 103 INDEX geographic trends, 92 growth by industry, 96-103 growth, 21, 86-89, 90-91, 96-111, 167 in health industry, 54-58, 99-100 historical patterns in, 32-61 innovations influencing, 32-34; see also Innovations/inventions; Word processing in insurance industry, 13, 16, 40-44, 59, 82, 92, 137 with largest negative employment changes, 119-121 with largest number of workers, 3, 88 with largest projected job growth for women, 121- 122 minority representation in, 42-43, 54, 69, 89-90 projections, 21, 47, 70-73, 79-83, 103-126, 174-175 recession effects on, 87, 92, 97, 99, 124 shifts in, 88-89, 111-123, 173; see also Occupational shifts sources of change in, 96- 103 staffingratio changes, 93-103, 106, 110-119 telecommuting, 144-147 see also Administrative support occupations; and specific occupations Collective bargaining, see Unions Commission of the European Communities, implementation of technology, 160- 161 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 81, 171 Computer operators employment levels, 3, 4-5, 21, 83, 88, 111-112, 118, 120-121, 123 minorities employed as, 92-93 Computers /c ompu te rizatio n in banking, 9, 35, 44-48, 138, 155, 157, 164-165 in communications industry, 9-10, 27-28 data entry technologies, 8 diffusion of, 7-8, 11, 39, 64 early business applications, 39 electronic mail, 9, 128 employment effects, see Employment effects of technological change in financial industries, 103, 124 in health industry, 54-58 in insurance industry, 13, 40-43, 59, 82, 136- 137 output and display technologies, 9

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INDEX projected developments in, 10 projected needs for, 12 resistance to, 8, 55 in retail industry, 49, 51 storage and processing, 8-9 system compatibility and interconnection, 9; see also Networking see also Office automation; Telecommunications; Telecommuting/telework; Word processing Current Population Survey (CPS), occupational classifications, 66-67, 89, 124 Customer service representatives employment rates, 15, 112, 114 in insurance industry, 42 integration of jobs by, 137 D Data entry operators, employment levels, 95, 117-119 Demographic trends in clerical employment, 89-96 in labor force, 68-74, 79-81 Department stores, see Retail industry Deskilling contradictory impressions of, 136- 143 of secretarial work, 17, 35, 137 as way of entry for disadvantaged workers, 142 see also Job content; Quality of employment; Skill level changes Dictionary of Occupational Titles, occupational classifications, 66-67. 138-139 Discrimination, see Barriers to employment; Equal employment opportunity laws; Sex segregation in employment E Earnings and wages bookkeepers, 38 compensation for newskills, 131, 149 educational attainment and, 149 effects of technological change on, 83 of home-based workers, 147 job segregation effects on, 19 losses on reemployment, 124-125 productivity and, 149 209 sex ratio in, 18- 19, 80 supermarket workers, 52 Economic conditions and considerations female employment and, 65, 80, 87 growth and employment, 1, 13- 14, 21, 59, 65, 80, 104 quality of employment, 148- 157 see also Recessions Educational attainment advanced degrees awarded to women, 79 by birth cohort, 76 by fields of study, 77-79, 169 by gender, 77-78 by race/ethnic origin, 77-78 wages and, 149 Educational needs and requirements in banking, 47 in insurance industry, 44 job transition programs, 176 forminority women, 126, 171, 176 in nursing, 53, 58 for occupations with largest job growth, 123 recommendations of panel regarding, 169-172 to respond to occupational shifts, 81, 169 Educationally disadvantaged effect of technological change on, 13,44, 47 programs for, 171 Effective Technical and Human Implementation of Computer-Based Systems (ETHICS), 161 Employment clerical, see Clerical employment/occupations discrimination in, see Barriers to employment; Equal employment opportunity laws; Sex segregation in employment displacement, see Job displacement government, see Government employment, federal and state and local at home, see Home work; Telecommuting/telework levels, see Levels of employment participation, see Participation in labor force projections, see Projections quality, see Quality of employment; Working conditions rates, see Labor force participation rates; Occupational staffing ratios; Projections; and specific industries and occupations

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210 security of, see Job security; Job tenure; Layoffs shifts in, see Occupational shifts of women, see Women's employment see also Unemployment Employment effects of technological change computerization, 8, 10, 39, 43, 52, 54, 83, 109, 118, 157, 173-174 demand for workers, 81-88 images of, 13-14, 127-129 measures of, 11, 14-15, 167-168 negative, 11, 16-17, 39, 43, 52, 54, 60, 83-84, 128, 173-176 positive, 11, 17, 37-38, 82, 128 sex differential, 18-23, 32-48, 125- 126, 168-169 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, consent decree with AT&T, 28 Equal employment opportunity laws effects on women's employment opportunities, 64-65 recommendations of panel on importance of enforcement, 173-175 Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, contract for advance notice of automation, 44 Ergonomics, 147-148, 151-153, 155-156, 177-179; see also Video display terminals F Family responsibilities, 19, 22-23, 145- 147, 171 Financial industry clerical staffing ratios, 96-97, 103 geographic trends in employment, 92 growth in employment, 15-16, 63, 92, 102-103 technological effects on employment, 15, 103, 124 see also Banking G Government employment, federal and state and local clerical declines, 92, 102- 103 displacement in, 124 growth in, 15-16, 97, 100, 106 staffing ratios, 96-98, 110 Growth, economic, see Economic conditions and considerations; Projections; Recessions INDEX H Health industry clerical employment growth in, 98- 100, 106 computerization of, 54-58 medical diagnostic systems, 8, 55-58 medical informatics, 55 structural changes and employment growth, 52, 58, 106 see also Nurses/nursing Hispanics educational attainments, 77 family responsibilities, 19 labor force participation rates, 69, 92 see also Minorities Home work, 22, 144- 147 Honeywell Corporation, survey of office automation reactions, 132-134 Hunt and Hunt studies, 1, 8, 14, 21, 34, 43, 46, 63, 65, 67, 83, 86-109, 112-118 I Implementation of technology adaptation to, 75, 169, 175- 177 advance notice of, 31, 44, 160, 162- 163, 173 in banking, 35, 47, 155, 164- 165 choices in, 12, 59-60, 156- 166 clerical workers' influence in, 152 constraints on, 59-60, 148- 157, 174, 176 design space concepts 160-161 employee participation programs, 152, - 178-179 employment effects of, see Employment effects of technological change government role in, 170 guidelines and planning for, 6, 27-28, 35, 37, 47, 136, 153-154, 164-165, 177-178 in health care industry, 57-58 historical patterns, 24-61 in insurance industry, 136 management dominance and role in, 151-154 negative effects of, 11, 16-17, 19, 22, 28, 39, 43, 52, 54, 60, 83-84, 89, 103, 109, 111, 119, 128, 157, 169, 173-176 bynoncomputer professionals, 136 Norwegian Bank Employees Union (BNF) example of, 164-165 positive effects of, 1-2, 6-11, 17, 36-38, 82, 103, 128, 157, 164-165, 169-170

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INDEX recommendations of panel regarding, 177-179 union involvement in, 153, 162- 165 women's participation in, 54-58, 151-153, 158-159, 164-165, 178 worker participation in, 158- 162 Innovations/ inventions skill-level changes, 137-139, 142 suburbanization of jobs, 92 International Medical Informatics Association, 58 Job content attributes of, 130 fragmentation, 136-139, 149 levels of analysis, 139- 140 reorganization and reintegration, 42, 137, 167 routinization, 138- 139 stages of technology, 139- 140 variety in, 130, 140 see also Deskilling; Job satisfaction; Quality of employment; Skill-level changes assembly line, 11 automatic dialing, 27-28 automatic teller machines, 45, 106, 118 bank credit cards, 45 Burroughs adding machine, 32 diffusion of, 7-8, 10-11, 24-27, 39, 64, 109, 170, 174 electronic funds transfer, 45 employment declines from, 83 intelligent cash registers, 49, 51, 111, 135 magnetic ink character recognition, 45 Job displacement medical monitoring and patient care systems, 8, 55-58 optical character readers, 8, 119 phonograph and radio, 12 punched card and counter-sorter, 32 replacing human interaction, 118 scanning technologies, 8, 49, 135 tabulating machines, 89 telemedicine, 56-57 telephone, 25-29; see also Telecommunications; Telephone operators typesetting equipment, 30-31; see also Printing and publishing typewriter, 32 Xerox photocopy method, 6 see also Computers/computerization; Employment effects of technological change; Telecommunications; Word processing Insurance industry automation of claims procedures, 43, 137 career ladders/mobility in, 42, 43-44 computerization of, 13, 40-43, 59, 82, 136-137 employment effects of automation, 40-44, 63, 82 female employment in, 13, 41, 44 growth of employment in, 13, 15- 16, 40, 43,90,95,98-100, 112-113, 118, 134 historical patterns of technological change in, 40-44 job integration in, 42 211 of agriculturalworkers, 15 in clerical work, 62, 124- 125 due to shifts in demand, 84, 172 due to technological advances, 59, 172 geographic mobility and, 86, 167 see also Earnings and wages; Employment effects of technological change; Location of work; Unemployment Job integration in insurance industry, 42 Job satisfaction influences on, 150 office automation effects on, 129, 132-136, 168 surveys of, 132-136, 149, 168 worker implementation of technology and, 136, 158 Job security advance notice of implementation of new technology, 31, 44, 160, 162- 163, 173 agreements, 31, 44 effects oftechnology on, 131, 135, 142 recommendations of panel regarding, 172-173 ways for employers to provide, 149- 150 Job segregation, see Sex segregation in employment Job tenure, 75; see also Job security; Work-life expectancy K Kelly Services, survey of office automation reactions, 132-133, 149

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212 L Labor force growth, projections, and size, see Participation in labor force; Projections Labor force participation rates accuracy, 70 by age, 72-74 by gender and race, 71-72 in male-dominated occupations, 125 projections, 68-72, 174 see also Participation in labor force Layoffs, advance notice of, 29; see also Job security Leontief-Duchin studies, 1,62, 108-111 Levels of employment productivity growth and, 15- 17 sources of change in, 16, 25 see also Clerical employment/occupations; Employment effects of technological change; Participation in labor force; Occupational shifts; Projections; Unemployment Location of work constraints on women, 22, 44, 86 effects of technology on, 11 geographic trends, 92 see also Job displacement; Unemployment, structural M Management/managers constraints on, in implementation of technology, 154- 157 effects of technological change on, 150 employment growth for, 109 female percentage, 152 reintegration of jobs of, 137-138 role in implementation of technology, 37, 151-152 Minolta Corporation/Professional Secretaries International, survey of office automation reactions, 132-134 Minorities education and, 77-78 negative effects of technology on, 16- 17, 19,22,54, 169 representation in clerical occupations, 42-43, 54, 91-92 see also Asian-Americans; Blacks; Hispanics INDEX Monitoring employee performance, 17, 27, 44, 128, 131, 143-144 N National League on Nursing, 57-58 National Research Council Board on Telecommunications and Computer Applications, 145 Committee on the Effective Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, 153 Committee on National Statistics, 14 Committee on Vision, 130, 147-148, 179 Networking, 9, 64, 174 9-to-5, survey of job stress among women, 132-134, 144, 151 Nurses/nursing educational programs and trends, 53, 55 effects of technology on, 54-58 implementation of technology, 54-58, 158-159 minority employment, 54 numbers of, 52-53, 123 sex differentials in, 53-54 stress in, 55-56 unemployment rates, 53, 58 o Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), 67, 111 Occupational shifts in banking, 46 in clerical work, 88-89 education, training, and retraining for, 170-172 in health industry, 58 in insurance industry, 42 from manufacturing to service, 15-16 projections for, 111-123, 173 in retail industry, 49-50 in telecommunications industry, 28 Occupational staffing ratios clerical variation across industries, 96-103 negative effects of changes in, 118- 119 ranking of clerical occupations by, 111 - 117 relative effects of, 106, 110-111 Occupations classification of, 60-61, 66, 68, 107, 109-110, 138-139, 142-143

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INDEX withlargestjobgrowth, 122-123, 142 reallocation of functions among, 82; see also Occupational shifts sources of change in size of, 96 see also Clerical employment/occupations, and specific occupations Office automation impact on clerical employment, 21, 63, 107, 118, 137-138 job satisfaction and, 129 productivity and, 36-37, 128 see also Computers/computerization; Employment effects of technological change; Ergonomics; Implementation of technology; Innovations/inventions; Quality of employment; Word processing On-thejob training, sex segregation in, 22, 46, 171 Output, see Productivity p Part-time employment, increases in, 50-51 Participation in labor force by age, 68, 72-73, 80 demand for workers, 81-83 educational attainment and, 75-79 factors affecting, 69-70, 79-81, 86 positive influences on, 69-70 by race/ethnic origin, 69 rates, 68-70; see also Labor force participation rates substitution for women workers, 80 supply of women workers, 68-79, 81, 125 see also Clerical employment/occupations; Te lecommuti ng /te le work Policy recommendations adaptivejobtransitions, 177 data and research needs, 181 design, implementation, and application of technology, 177-178 education, training, and retraining, 172 employment security and flexibility, 173 expansion of job opportunities, 175 hearth concerns, 179 worker participation in implementation of technology, 178- 179 Postal clerks employment levels, 21, 91, 94, 103, 117-118 minorities employed as, 92 2/3 Printing and publishing industries clerical employment in, 91, 95, 98, 113-114 female work force, 30-31 historical patterns of technological change in, 29-32 home-based workers, 145 innovations in, 30-31 job segregation in, 29-32 Productivity employment levels and, 15- 17, 81 -82 gains from new technology, 64, 82-83, 109, 156-157, 174, 176 growth in, 13 innovations increasing, 14, 64 measures of, 14, 143-144 monitoring, 143-144 office automation and, 36-37, 82-83, 123 wages and, 149 Project on Connecticut Workers and Technological Change, 128 Projections accuracy of, 70 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 63, 71, 104- 117, 123-125, 143, 180 data availability for, 66-68, 179- 180 demand for workers, 81 -83, 174- 175 Hunt and Hunt, 103-109, 112-118 labor force participation rates, 70-73 labor supply, 79-81, 174 largest projected clerical job growth for women, 121 - 122 Leontief-Duchin, 1, 62, 108- 111 levels of clerical employment, 21 occupational shifts in clerical work, 111-123 overall employment growth, 103- 111 of panel, 167-170, 172-175 problems in, 63-65, 69, 109- 110 unemployment, 83-86 women's wages, 18- 19 see also specific industries and occupations Q Quality of employment assessment of, 67-68, 131 - 136 biases in assessing, 132- 136 changes in, see Deskilling; Skill-level changes concerns about, 17-18, 127-128

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214 criteria for assessing, 129-131 definition of, 129- 131 economic considerationsin, 131, 148-150, 154, 156-157; see also Job security employer benefits in ensuring, 154- 155 equipment age and, 140 improvements in, 17, 44, 60 management's role in enhancement of, 153-154 occupational mix changes, 129 recommendations of panel for monitoring hearth concerns, 179 sources of information on, 131-136 word processing effects on, 34, 140-141; see also Office automation see also Job content; Job satisfaction; Working conditions Quality ofEmployment Survey, 67, 131, 180 R Recessions, employment effects of, 87, 92, 97, 99, 124 Recommendations, see Policy recommendations Retail industry career opportunities, 51 cash register innovations and computerization, 49, 51 clerical staffing ratios, 96-97 deskilling in, 52, 137 employment growth, 15, 50, 123 food sector trends, 49, 51-52 growth in clerical employment, 96-98, 101-102 occupational shifts, 49-50, 52 structural changes in, 48-49, 51 -52 turnover rates, 51 unionization, 51-52 S Sales workers, see Cashiers Seasonal employment, 51 Secretaries blurring of lines between managers and, 11, 35 deskilling of, 17, 35, 137, 142 diverse duties of, 33 growth rates for, 90, 115, 118, 120-121 INDEX number of, 3, 4, 33-34, 37-38, 67, 90, 93 replacement of by paraprofessionals, 35 word processing impacts on, 11, 34-37; see also Office automation see also Clerical employment/occupations Service sector employment clerical staffing ratios, 96 employment levels, 97 growth in, 13, 15- 16, 21, 102, 104 see also specific industries and occupations Sex segregation in employment career mobility end, 19 in data processing, 40 extent of, 19-20, 80 in on-thejob training, 22, 46 in printing and publishing, 29-31 in retail industry, 50 in wages, 18-19, 80 see also Barriers to employment; Equal employment opportunity laws Sex stereotypes, 22, 23 Shifts in employment, see Occupational shifts Skill-level changes and mismatches, 17, 60, 82-83, 136-139, 141,168;seealso Deskilling Social Security Administration, implementation of technology by, 157 Stenographers, employment levels, 4, 21, 83, 89,91,93, 118, 120 Swedish Act of Codetermination, 160 T Tabulating machine operators, 89 Teachers' aides growth in, 88, 90, 112, 120- 121 minority employment as, 92, 95 Telecommunications automatic dialing, 27-28 automatic switching, 10, 27-28, 103 clerical employment in, 98; see also Telephone operators effects on information processing jobs, 10 equipment innovations, 9-10, 24-27 historical patterns of technological change in, 25-29 occupational shifts in, 28, 89 productivity and employment in, 15 projected developments in, 10, 29 Telecommuting/telework, 144-147

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INDEX Telephone operators employment trends, 15, 27-28, 89, 91, 94, 103, 111, 117-118, 120 monitoring performance of, 17, 27 Temporary help industry, growth projections, 122 Training needs, 13, 172; see also Educational needs and requirements; On-thejob training Turnover rates department store industry, 51 women workers, 23, 27, 60-61, 171 Wages Typists growth rates, 88, 90, 116, 120 minorities employed as, 92-93 number of, 3, 4, 21, 90 see also Office automation U Unemployment cyclical increases in, 16, 84-87, 109 projections, 83-86 public policy impacts on, 85 rates for nurses, 53 solutions to, 85, 175- 177 structural, 84-85, 111, 125 transitional, 175 types, 83-84 see also Job displacement Unions Communications Workers of America, 29 International Typographical Union, 30-31 negotiated technology agreements, 162 Norwegian Bank Employees Union, 164-165 Office and Professional Workers, 38 retail industry activities of, 51-52 role in adoption of new technology, 153, 160, 162-165 Service Employees International Union, 44 80 State, County, and Municipal Workers of America, 39 technology change committees, 29, 163 United Federal Workers, 38 United Food and Commercial Workers, 51-52 women's access to, 22 Women's Trade Union League, 27 2~5 U.S. National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress, 16-17, 127 V Video display terminals (VDTs), 17, 44, 68, 128, 134-135, 154, 156, 179; see also Ergonomics W two-tier, collective bargaining for, 52 see also Earnings and wages Wholesale trade, employment in, 97, 100, 102, 110, 123, 147-148 Women's employment clerical occupations, see Clerical employment/occupations, and specific occupations differential effects of technology on, 18-23, 32-48, 125-126, 168-169 earnings and wages, 18-19, 38, 80, 83 economic considerations in, 65, 80, 87 educational attainment and, 75-79, 169-170, 172 expansion of opportunities for, 64-65, 173-175; see also Barriers to employment family responsibilities and, 19, 22-23, 145-147, 171 in financial industry, 40-44 in insurance industry, 52-58 location of work and, 22, 44, 86 in nursing, see Nurses/nursing occupations with largest projected growth, 121-122 on-thejob training, 22, 46, 171 in printing and publishing, 29-32 by race/ethnic origin, 93-95 in retail trade, 50 sex segregation in, 19-20, 22, 29-31, 46, stressin, 132-134, 144, 151 supply of workers, 68-79; see also Labor force participation rates in telecommunications, 25-29 turnover rates, 23, 27, 60-61, 171 in unions, see Unions see also Participation in labor force; Projections; and specific occupations

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27d -~ processing ~sdug use oF ~-67 classification of, 66 employment increases due 10, gmenladon of jobs by, 137 impact on secmmdes, 11, 34-37 p~ducOvi~ impacts of, 36, 82, 109 social onion oF 139-1 vade1yofusksin, 140-141 ~~e ~~o Ounce au10mad0n Tier satisfaction, ~~e Job satisfaction Hang conditions heakhconcems, 134-13S, 1=, 147-148, 168, 179 home-based clerical wow, 143-147 physical 130, 147-148, 151-132, 154 aid, 13~131, 155 Mass, 17, 27, 55-56, 132-135, 1= e ~~o Economist Honkohng employee fiance; Qualm of e~loy~np Video display 1e~inals Hang amen Education Fund, 17 -~ expand, 75