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PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM ON COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHY AND LITTORAL WARFARE: (Unclassified Summary) This page in the original is blank.

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PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM ON COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHY AND LITTORAL WARFARE: (Unclassified Summary) 1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES Littoral warfare is the use of combined forces, shaped for forward operations in the sea-land-air environment, to influence, deter, or contain and defeat a regional threat through the projection of maritime power. It is an extremely complex and dynamic part of naval warfare. To be waged successfully, it demands long-term commitment to research and development, acquisition, threat assessments, tactical and operational analysis, training, education, and realistic fleet exercises. A primary need for amphibious operations, made obvious by recent actions, is to detect, locate, and either avoid or clear mines and obstacles from shallow water approaches to and through the craft landing zones. The primary current shortfall is the time it takes for high-confidence Mine Countermeasures (MCM) to be completed. MCM capabilities are required in three categories: (1) rapid reconnaissance and assessment of the mine threat; (2) organic detection and avoidance and/or other means of protecting Carrier Battle Group and Amphibious Task Force assets; (3) clearance of sea mines, including rapid breakthrough at choke points. Operational maneuver from the sea is the desired tactic for present and future maritime power projection ashore. Whenever possible, it is initiated from a position at sea that threatens a large part of the enemy's littoral area. Current counter-mine/obstacle technology limits our capability to conduct operational maneuvers from the sea across beaches defended by both mine and obstacle barriers. On August 2-5, 1993, the third in a series of classified symposia on tactical oceanography was held, with a focus on coastal oceanography and littoral warfare. The symposium was organized by the Navy Committee of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board, and was jointly supported by the Oceanographer of

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PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM ON COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHY AND LITTORAL WARFARE: (Unclassified Summary) the Navy and the Chief of Naval Research. The Navy's new focus is on the littoral regime, examined herein as four subdivisions: harbors and approaches, straits and archipelagoes, the surf zone, and the continental shelf. Symposium participants examined the meteorological and oceanographic forcing factors that have an impact on military operations. The symposium had several objectives. To address timely operational problems, fleet mission needs, and other requirements for which research and development assistance and inputs are sought by naval leaders and program managers. To enhance communication and understanding among the basic and applied research communities, and between these communities and our naval forces. To enable an extended group of researchers to become familiar with challenging naval issues applicable to the littoral regime. The symposium was preceded by a simulation of a warfare situation in the littoral zone (war game). Fifty academic and military personnel participated in the war game. Staff from the Tactical Department of the Training Center interacted with war game participants for one day, with the goal of emphasizing the decisions that are forced upon commanders by rapidly changing littoral environmental conditions. The war game simulated conditions in the Persian Gulf. The war game focused on the following issues: Navy platforms (i.e., aircraft, surface ships, and submarines), tactical use of meteorology and oceanography data, tactics, communications, procedures, equipment capabilities and limitations, weapons, and acoustic and nonacoustic systems. The war game was also useful for motivating discussions during the remaining sessions of the symposium. The symposium began with a number of introductory presentations to prepare symposium participants for subsequent discussions. RADM John Chubb (Commander, Naval Oceanography Command) provided an overview of the challenge of collecting and analyzing data in the littoral environment (from the shelf break to the surf zone and beyond) to provide useful products to warfare commanders. He challenged symposium participants to identify ways to collect environmental data in a real-time tactical environment, to improve and apply satellite capabilities, to find ways to develop prototype models rapidly, and to correct deficiencies in our present high-resolution modeling efforts. COL Michael Patrow (U.S. Marine Corps, Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Expeditionary Warfare Division) provided an overview of the shift in emphasis (i.e., resources) by the Navy toward the littoral environment based on

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PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM ON COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHY AND LITTORAL WARFARE: (Unclassified Summary) changes in the international arena. The discussion included a summary of the Navy reorganization to sustain the new focus on littoral warfare, a definition of expeditionary warfare, a review of the threats that U.S. forces face, a review of some systems and initiatives for upgrading them now under way, and several real-world “walk-through” examples. CAPT R.C. Mabry (Commander, Naval Special Warfare, Group One) provided an overview of Naval Special Warfare from World War II through the current operations in Somalia, focusing on the mission, organization, and capabilities of special forces in the littoral environment. The discussion included planning considerations and data needs prior to entering the theater of operations, as well as a summary of meteorology and oceanography data requirements (i.e, essential elements of information in oceanic, land, riverine, and other operating environments). RADM Geoffrey L. Chesbrough (Oceanographer of the Navy) provided an overview of operational oceanography from multiple perspectives, including preparation for executing the strategy set forth in the internal Navy document entitled From the Sea. He also discussed the global changes from World War II to today, use of the Naval Expeditionary Forces, multiple littoral threats, joint operations required for success, command and control in a vast battlespace, and the need for tailored meteorology and oceanography data products.

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PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM ON COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHY AND LITTORAL WARFARE: (Unclassified Summary) This page in the original is blank.