EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

During the period November 8 to November 16, 1993, the National Research Council, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Romanian Academy organized a workshop in New York and Washington, D.C. on “Energy Planning, Management, and Efficiency in a Local Context.” I.L. (Jack) White (Senior Director of Energy Programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory [PNL]) chaired the NRC delegation. Plamen Stoev Tzvetanov (Head of the Department of Systems Analysis in Energetics, Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) chaired the Bulgarian delegation, and Gleb Dragan (President of the Energy Commission of the Romanian Academy) was chair of the Romanian delegation.

GOAL OF MEETINGS

As with the November 1992 workshop in Romania, the overall goal of this activity was to help Romania and Bulgaria make the transition from a closed, centrally planned economy to a more competitive economy operating in the world market; one which buys and sells commodities, including energy, at world prices. In today's world, this means developing 1) a supporting infrastructure that can establish an energy policy consistent with economic and environmental goals, 2) a regulatory framework to monitor and guide the activities of monopoly and other agents operating in the energy sector, 3) a capital market to raise the funds for needed energy investments, and 4) educational processes to help those raised under a different regime learn how to contribute under the new system.



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Energy Planning, Management, and Efficiency in a Local Context: Summary of an American-Bulgarian-Romanian Workshop EXECUTIVE SUMMARY During the period November 8 to November 16, 1993, the National Research Council, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Romanian Academy organized a workshop in New York and Washington, D.C. on “Energy Planning, Management, and Efficiency in a Local Context.” I.L. (Jack) White (Senior Director of Energy Programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory [PNL]) chaired the NRC delegation. Plamen Stoev Tzvetanov (Head of the Department of Systems Analysis in Energetics, Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) chaired the Bulgarian delegation, and Gleb Dragan (President of the Energy Commission of the Romanian Academy) was chair of the Romanian delegation. GOAL OF MEETINGS As with the November 1992 workshop in Romania, the overall goal of this activity was to help Romania and Bulgaria make the transition from a closed, centrally planned economy to a more competitive economy operating in the world market; one which buys and sells commodities, including energy, at world prices. In today's world, this means developing 1) a supporting infrastructure that can establish an energy policy consistent with economic and environmental goals, 2) a regulatory framework to monitor and guide the activities of monopoly and other agents operating in the energy sector, 3) a capital market to raise the funds for needed energy investments, and 4) educational processes to help those raised under a different regime learn how to contribute under the new system.

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Energy Planning, Management, and Efficiency in a Local Context: Summary of an American-Bulgarian-Romanian Workshop The multiple goals to be achieved are daunting and these short workshops can hardly be expected to move the process very far. However, the overarching goal of the three delegations was to learn what they could about each other during the workshop and to draft future action plans in order to sustain the momentum toward real collaboration that had been generated during the visit. The action plans contain specific proposals from the Romanians and Bulgarians to enter into collaborative ventures with U.S. institutions and firms in the near future. This visit also strove to show the visiting delegations key parts of the federal and local infrastructure supporting U.S. energy policy at both the planning and implementation stages. Of particular importance was how federal and local agencies coordinate their activities to achieve mutual goals at the local level. Given this knowledge, the foreign delegations could decide which infrastructure and/or activities might be transferable to their own unique situations. ACTION PLANS Delegates spent the last day of the workshop defining mutually beneficial follow-up activities to pursue over the near and long term. The participants split into three groups, each containing representatives from the NRC, Bulgarian, and Romanian delegations, to discuss the following topics: 1) energy modeling, 2) energy efficiency strategy, and 3) energy laws and codes. The resulting action plans are provided in Chapter 3 and summarized below. Energy Modeling Working models are needed to help make energy policy related to local, national, and global issues. Modeling tools are needed at the local level to develop energy strategies that meet local

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Energy Planning, Management, and Efficiency in a Local Context: Summary of an American-Bulgarian-Romanian Workshop social and economic needs and at the same time are consistent with national policies and the connected power delivery system. From a broader perspective, national-level models are needed to help create energy policy that is consistent with the economic and social goals of the country. Tools are needed that also allow analysts to assess the results of policy. The main global issues are the increasing concentrations of green house gasses in the atmosphere and other “emissions” which cause transboundary pollution problems. New policies are needed to control these pollution emissions at the country level and to determine the impacts of these policies. World energy prices are another important facet of global energy concerns. Models of these issues would allow national energy policy to be made in concert with policies on a worldwide level. Energy Efficiency Strategy An energy efficiency strategy is needed to enable each country to achieve all of its lower cost resource opportunities. When planning it is better to plan with all resources at one's disposal. Some of the lowest cost sources of “new” energy can be obtained from improving the efficiency with which energy is used, thus freeing up energy to be used for additional services. Efficiency gains can help to decrease fuel imports, lower pollution levels, and improve the comfort of citizens. Thus, an effective efficiency strategy is a fundamental part of good energy planning. Energy Laws and Codes In order to put into place any strategy, the national and local policies must be well-understood and must be implemented in a framework of clear and enforced laws and regulations. In addition, rules that establish standards for the energy efficiency of buildings, lighting, motors, etc., can make energy efficiency

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Energy Planning, Management, and Efficiency in a Local Context: Summary of an American-Bulgarian-Romanian Workshop planning both easier and more effective and help reduce risks associated with the uncertainty. Both Romania and Bulgaria are in the process of reviewing their respective codes on end-use products. They are also reviewing laws related to energy production and distribution. U.S. groups that can help in this endeavor are scattered. Some are in the legal profession, others in energy policy organizations, some work in state organizations, and so forth. In Chapter 3, additional groups are identified and other opportunities to assist in this area are discussed.