DESCRIPTIONS OF ONGOING WORK

ENGINEERING STUDIES

The Implementation Plan for Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration (1994) describes a series of projects with anticipated funding levels and milestones designed to accomplish three of the four engineering goals stated in the the Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) program ’s Research Agenda and Communications Plan (1994). Engineering dosimetry studies are not described in the plan because they are not funded under the program. Hence, this report does not comment on the appropriateness or completeness of research in that area. Similarly, engineering efforts associated with laboratory studies (exposure facility development) are outside the scope of the Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration plan. Those efforts are assumed to be part of the Health Effects Research Implementation Plan and thus are not addressed here.

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION
Objectives

The first stated objective is to gather data on the range and typical characteristics of electric and magnetic fields to which the general population and subgroups might be exposed. The purpose is to ensure that biomedical researchers are aware of the full range of exposure conditions that occur in the environment.

The second stated objective of this research activity is “to evaluate information about electric and magnetic field characteristics … in relevant residential, work place, and other environments.” This objective appears premature because it clearly emphasizes that there is to be an evaluation of information relative to biologically important EMF characteristics before their biologic significance has been established.



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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] DESCRIPTIONS OF ONGOING WORK ENGINEERING STUDIES The Implementation Plan for Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration (1994) describes a series of projects with anticipated funding levels and milestones designed to accomplish three of the four engineering goals stated in the the Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) program ’s Research Agenda and Communications Plan (1994). Engineering dosimetry studies are not described in the plan because they are not funded under the program. Hence, this report does not comment on the appropriateness or completeness of research in that area. Similarly, engineering efforts associated with laboratory studies (exposure facility development) are outside the scope of the Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration plan. Those efforts are assumed to be part of the Health Effects Research Implementation Plan and thus are not addressed here. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION Objectives The first stated objective is to gather data on the range and typical characteristics of electric and magnetic fields to which the general population and subgroups might be exposed. The purpose is to ensure that biomedical researchers are aware of the full range of exposure conditions that occur in the environment. The second stated objective of this research activity is “to evaluate information about electric and magnetic field characteristics … in relevant residential, work place, and other environments.” This objective appears premature because it clearly emphasizes that there is to be an evaluation of information relative to biologically important EMF characteristics before their biologic significance has been established.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] The third objective of exposure assessment and source characterization activities is “to identify significant sources of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and ELF-modulated EMF exposure and to use this information to support exposure assessment, risk assessment, communication, and the development of future field management strategies.” It is important to note that the limited scope of the EMF-RAPID Research Agenda and Communications Plan (1994) which focuses on “Electric and Magnetic Fields Produced by the Generation, Transmission, and Use of Electric Energy,” has been expanded in the implementation plan to include all ELF and ELF-modulated EMF. The broader definition encompasses many sources, such as most communications systems, various medical devices, and a range of industrial devices, that have no direct relationship to the generation, transmission, or use of electric power. Identification of sources of ELF-EMF exposure is clearly necessary and of immediate need to support epidemiologic studies. However, the contribution of this objective to support risk assessment and field management efforts is unclear. Once again, this effort will be necessary only when health effects research identifies adverse health effects and the characteristics of exposure that lead to those effects. The fourth objective, to evaluate instrumentation to measure fields and techniques for assessing personal exposure, is on target. It is necessary both now and in the future as new instrumentation and techniques become available. Projects The plan lists 11 projects designed to meet the stated objectives of exposure assessment and source characterization. Of the six studies scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1994, four are directed either toward the development of guidelines for measurement procedures or to the development of a data base to receive the results. The descriptions of those projects and their scheduling appear appropriate. The remaining two projects scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1994 are the early phases of 5-year projects for human exposure assessment and environmental field surveys. Starting these last two projects before completion of the four measurement and data base development projects could be unwise because they will fail to benefit from those efforts. The resulting data could be less

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] comprehensive and are likely to be inconsistent with future data derived in accordance with recommendations from the four development programs. Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the immediacy of starting the exposure and field survey projects because extremely comprehensive data will be required only in the future and then only if adverse health effects are confirmed. The source characteristic measurement project is scheduled to begin after completion of the effort to develop relevant source measurement guidelines. Projects to develop personal exposure prediction models and models to predict fields based on the presence of sources are appropriate ways to leverage personal exposure, area, and source measurements into useful predictive tools. However, they are scheduled to begin in 1995, which might be too early, coming before a critical mass of measurement data has been obtained and can be made available. The remaining projects in the exposure assessment and source characterization area seek to improve the definition and documentation of measurement instrument performance. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is an appropriate organization for those important roles. It is unfortunate that those tasks cannot start earlier than scheduled so that they could be of benefit throughout all of the 5-year measurement program. Overall Concerns The exposure assessment and source characterization activity is a large undertaking burdened with significant inefficiencies as a consequence of the imposed deadlines. Because it is not known at present which aspects of EMF exposure, if any, can damage human health, a prudent measurement program requires comprehensive measurements covering a wide range of field attributes. To do otherwise risks failing to capture the relevant information. Even then, the measurements taken might fail to capture the appropriate EMF attribute or combination of attributes. Therefore, it is likely that much of the accumulated data will be irrelevant because they will address inappropriate EMF characteristics. Furthermore, there is a significant chance that, at the end of the 5-year EMF-RAPID

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] program, the health effects research will not have progressed to the extent that the importance of those various field parameters can be clearly illustrated. An alternative approach is to conduct a much more modest set of exposure assessment and source characterization projects focusing on examining the range of human esposures to EMF. Such studies do not require extensive statistical rigor to meet the requirements of the first stated objective. Preliminary efforts to develop measurement procedures, personal exposure assessment procedures, a data base, and instrument characterization would meet the immediate needs of the other objectives. If the health effects research identifies adverse effects of exposure and the exposure conditions that lead to those effects, an efficient set of exposure assessment studies focusing on the field attributes of concern could be carried out relatively quickly. For example, if magnetic field transients turn out to be the exposure of concern, investigators can proceed immediately to the environments identified in the range-finding study, where transients have been found, and carry out a focused assessment of exposure to transients of the type found to be biologically active. In the meantime, research funds that would have been committed to inefficient, exhaustive measurement studies could be directed toward the more critical task of identifying health effects and the exposures that induce them. EMF MANAGEMENT Objectives Two objectives are identified for the EMF management portion of the EMF-RAPID engineering research activity. They are to evaluate the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of options for managing EMF exposure and if needed to develop new techniques for field management. Both are appropriate and attainable engineering efforts once the relevant characteristics of field exposure, if any, are understood. In addition there is room for research projects looking at decision-making and policy setting under scientific uncertainty.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] Projects The only project now identified is to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, reliability, environmental impacts, and associated costs of various field management options. Based on the background discussion, “field management” in this context means reduction of the EMF intensity at the location of interest. Despite uncertainty about the aspects of exposure that could influence human health, reduction techniques that involve avoidance or shielding are likely to be effective for most field attributes, e.g., shielding to reduce the average rms magnetic field intensity will also reduce the magnitude of the transients. The need for additional projects in this area or for continuation of the identified project beyond 1 year is to be determined based on “identified and documented needs.” That criterion is vague; the committee members hope it will not lead to escalation of work in this area until some health effect of EMF exposure is established and the exposure conditions leading to that effect are defined. QUALITY ASSURANCE This portion of the planned engineering research activity has just one objective and one project. Funding for quality control efforts in a program the size of EMF-RAPID is clearly appropriate. The project identified is an expansion of a continuing effort with projects funded by the Department of Energy outside the EMF-RAPID program. FUNDED EMF-RAPID ENGINEERING PROJECTS Sixteen engineering projects are currently funded under the EMF-RAPID program (Table 1) and 10 more are in various stages of procurement (Table 2). Eleven of the continuing projects are being conducted under sole-source contracts with private concerns or under interagency agreements with federal agencies or national laboratories that have unique abilities in the area of research or that represent unique opportunities for one reason or another. This committee has not received detailed information about those projects and therefore cannot comment on their scope.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] However, all appear from their titles and objectives to directly address research needs identified in the implementation plan or are consistent with the goals of the EMF-RAPID program. Projects 7 through 11 (Table 1) have been contracted after open solicitation. The technical proposals for those projects were available to this committee and have been reviewed for scope and technical approach. Scope and funding for those projects are consistent with five of the six exposure assessment and source characterization projects stated in the implementation plan for fiscal year 1994 funding. It appears the plan is approximately 1 year behind schedule. It is interesting that Projects 7 and 8 intend to produce recommendations for measurement guidelines of source-specific and environment-specific fields. Both start with a defined task to identify a list of EMF parameters with potential biologic relevance so that the guidelines can be as comprehensive as possible. Project 9, which will begin the actual collection of environmental field data, is based on a proposed protocol that places only modest emphasis on a few parameters other than broadband field intensity. It would seem more productive to progress through the measurement guideline development process of Projects 7 and 8 before proceeding with the data collection phase. Alternatively, if the rather narrow protocol proposed by investigators in Project 8 is appropriate to the needs of the EMF-RAPID program, what is the purpose of Projects 1 and 2? Project 10 focuses on the development of guidelines for handling problems unique to personal exposure measurements. Nevertheless, it contains a specific task to address the selection of field and measurement parameters that require quantification. Project 11 initiates development of a data base for EMF measurements. The approach proposed appears outstanding in that it provides for data that are archival in at least three levels of reduction. Raw data sets are stored with only minimal processing so they can be reanalyzed later if new concepts of “dose” evolve from the health effects research. Another portion of the proposed data set will contain reduced data in tabular and graphic form. Finally, text files that describe the data and some summary data will be available for easy assimilation of the fundamentals of the data set. At all levels, the data base will be structured to accommodate data of varying degrees of sophistication reporting varying parameters and from either area or personal exposure measurement.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] TABLE 1. EMF-RAPID PROGRAM ENGINEERING PROJECTS IN PROGRESS IN FY-1995 PROJECT NUMBER PROJECT OBJECTIVE AGENCY OR CONTRACTOR ONE YEAR FUNDING STATUS AS OF JUNE 1995 1 EMF Design Guidelines for School Buildings Develop a booklet on EMF design guidelines for schools and grounds construction. California State Polytechnic University $25,000 Contract in place 10/13/94. Expires 11/30/95. 2 Determination of Relationship Between Questionnaire Data and Appliance Exposures Develop methods, suitable for epidemiologic research, for assessing magnetic-field exposures arising from the use of home electrical appliances and other residential sources. EM Factors $60,000 Contract in place 10/11/94. Expires 11/30/95. 3 Data Acquisition for Appliance Oriented EMF Exposure Assessment Collect data to develop methods, suitable for epidemiologic research, for assessing magnetic-field exposures arising from the use of home electrical appliances and other residential sources. University of Bristol $60,000 Contract in place 8/18/94. Expires 6/1/95. 4 Health Risk Dimensions of the EMF Problem Examine (1) the role of EMF in the policy process, (2) prospects for significantly reducing uncertainty about health risks, and (3) the characteristics of EMF risk vs.other hazards. Resources for the Future $50,000 Contract in place 12/8/94. Expires 11/30/95. 5 Evaluation of EMF Conditions in Minority Communities Develop a plan to measure EMF intensity as a function of location and time of day within minority communities. University of South Florida $30,000 Contract in place 9/26/94. Expires 11/30/95. 6 Characterization of Exposures to EMF in the office environment. Characterize exposures to EMF in the office environment. University of Washington $20,000 Contract in place 9/1/94. Expires 8/31/95.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] 7 Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement Develop recommendations for establishing a set of guidelines for measuring and reporting a number of EMF characteristics for a wide range of sources. Electric Research & Management, Inc. $120,000 Contract in place. 8 Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Field Measurement Develop recommendations for establishing a set of guidelines for measuring EMF exposure in various environments. Magnetic Measurements $125,000 Contract in place. 9 Environmental Field Surveys Conduct preliminary surveys in identified environments and provide information on contributions of EMF sources in the surveyed environments. Enertech Consultants $230,000 Contract in place. 10 Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Personal Exposure Measurement Develop recommendations for establishing a set of guidelines for personal exposure measurement. T. Dan Bracken, Inc. $110,000 Contract in place. 11 Development of an EMF Measurement Data Base Develop a data base that contains original EMF exposure assessment and measurement data. T. Dan Bracken, Inc. $100,000 Contract in place. 12 Household Source Characterization Develop complete information on specific sources and source groups in the home. Pacific Northwest Laboratory $100,000 Agreement in place.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] 13 Conduct Environmental Field Surveys in Industrial Settings Conduct a series of preliminary surveys in 10 industries to collect information on EMF levels and the contributions of individual sources to the total EMF level. (2 year effort). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health $100,000 Agreement in place Nov. 1994. Expires Oct. 1996. 14 Transmission Line Exposure Assessment Study Develop numerical models for exposure resulting from residential proximity to transmission lines. Oak Ridge National Laboratory $10,000 Agreement in place. 15 Exposure Assessment of Workers from Sobel-Finnish Alzheimer Study Conduct an exposure assessment of workers from the Sobel-Finnish Alzheimer Study. Pacific Northwest Laboratory $100,000 Agreement in place. 16 X-ray/EMF Line Workers Study Analyze line worker exposure to EMF and possible x-rays from corona discharge. Oak Ridge National Laboratory $50,000 Agreement in place

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] Table 2 summarizes the 10 other engineering projects for which funding or procurement action is anticipated in fiscal year 1995. The first four are sole-source contracts or interagency agreements which use expertise or opportunities available to the organizations identified. All fall within the implementation plan. Solicitations for competitive proposals for Projects 5, 6, and 7 of Table 2 were to have been released as this report went to press (August 1995). Those projects correspond to efforts identified in the implementation plan for fiscal year 1995 funding, suggesting that program managers are trying to reduce the schedule deficit caused by delays in implementing the EMF-RAPID program. Three additional engineering projects (Projects 8-10, Table 2) are expected to enter the procurement cycle late in fiscal year 1995. Their objectives closely match the fiscal year 1995 projects identified in the implementation plan.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] TABLE 2. EMF-RAPID PROGRAM ANTICIPATED ENGINEERING PROJECTS IN FY-1995 PROJECT NUMBER PROJECT OBJECTIVE AGENCY OR CONTRACTOR ONE YEAR FUNDING STATUS AS OF JUNE 1995 1 Transmission Line Exposure Assessment Study Determine how many people live close to transmission lines. (Supplemental funding of ongoing project of the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to provide open literature reporting of results.) Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation $25,000 In procurement. 2 Transient Measurements Measure transient EMF and characterize the relationship between transients and wire codes. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center $100,000 In procurement. 3 Human Exposure Assessment of Transit Workers Obtain detailed information about personal exposures of transit workers (multiyear project). National Institute of Occupational Safety Health $120,000/year 4 years Interagency agreement in process. 4 Exposure Assessment of Common Transportation Means Conduct exposure assessment of common transportation means, excluding electric rail multiyear project). Department of Transportation $100,000/year, 3 years Interagency agreement in process. 5 Source and Exposure Prediction Model Development Develop a model for predicting EMF associated with sources and develop a method for predicting exposures by combining source data with an individual’s activity pattern. To be determined Approximately $200,000 Request for proposal expected summer 1995.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] 6 Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies and Strategies Analyze the effectiveness, safety, reliability, environmental impacts, and associated costs of various field reduction options. To be determined $100,000 Request for proposal expected summer 1995. 7 Random Population Exposure Assessment: Scoping Study Phase I: Conduct a scoping study to obtain detailed information about personal exposures from a randomly selected large population (multiyear project). To be determined Approximately $100,000 Request for proposal expected summer 1995. 8 Industrial Source Characterization Develop complete information on specific sources and source groups in industrial settings. To be determined Approximately $100,000 Procurement action expected fall 1995. 9 Conduct Environmental Field Surveys in Commercial Settings Conduct a series of preliminary surveys in commercial settings to collect information on EMF levels and the contributions of individual sources to the total EMF level. To be determined To be determined Procurement action expected fall 1995. 10 EMF Measurement Data Base Maintain the EMF measurement data base (multiyear project). To be determined Approximately $100,000/year 4 years Procurement action expected fall 1995.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] IN VITRO STUDIES The 14 projects now included in the in vitro portion of the EMF-RAPID Program (Table 3) show a broad effort to reproduce selected seminal work and to start experiments in five areas: calcium ion effects; membrane effects; gene expression, both general patterns of expression of early response genes such as c-myc, fos, jun, and genes associated with the signal transduction pathway; free-radical effects; and cellular promotion and copromotion. Cellular and subcellular systems range from enzymes to yeast and include nonspecialized and specialized characteristics. Mammalian cell systems to be studied include transformed and partially transformed cells. Examination of the titles of these projects indicates that the EMF-RAPID program has been successful in achieving breadth, while maintaining a focus on reproducing or replicating certain key studies. Few of these cell systems have an extensive data base for response to known toxic agents. Therefore, most of these data might not be applicable in formal risk analysis. Their acquisition, however, should achieve two goals. First, positive or negative results will give weight to decisions concerning whether power frequency EMF is biologically active in mammalian cells in a manner that could contribute to adverse health effects. Second, if positive effects are identified, these data will aid in establishing hypotheses that can be tested directly in future studies. This program appears to balance the need for reproduction of important previous studies with the need for new approaches to the overal problem. Moreover, the emphasis on gene expression seems warranted because it is in this area that most positive responses to EMF have been reported. Several of the projects will evaluate the extent to which EMF can interact with ionizing radiation or other agents that are known to initiate multistage carcinogenesis. Several in vivo projects to be discussed subsequently also evaluate the potency of EMF to interact in multistage carcinogensis. We strongly recommend that the Risk Assessment Working Group identify the process by which such interaction data, if positive, would be incorporated into a formal risk analysis. This identification should be made as soon as possible so that relevant interaction data, if observed, can be confirmed and extended.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] TABLE 3. EMF-RAPID PROGRAM IN VITRO PROJECTS FUNDED IN FY-1994 INVESTIGATOR AMOUNT ($ thousands) TOPIC (Key Words) Austumian 434 Cell membranes Balcer-Kubiczek 702 Gene expression Binninger 380 Transcription, Signal transduction Hui 668 Gene expression Liburdy 833 Calcium ion, Proliferation Luben 839 Transduction, Receptors McLeod 351 Cell function R. Miller 778 Oncogene expression S. Miller 827 Transduction, Free radicals Nuccitelli 921 Protein expression, Skin cancer Reinhart 666 Transcription, Transformation Saffer 1,161 Expression, Copromotion Williams 1,444 Myc oncogenes, Ornithine decarboxylase Woloschak 467 Induction, Expression TOTAL 10,471 68% of total funding

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] IN VIVO STUDIES Seven projects, one-third of the total number funded in the first round of the EMF-RAPID program, deal with animal studies (Table 4). They represent 32% of the resources committed by the EMF-RAPID program in 1994. Three projects focus on the role of EMF in modulating melatonin and seek to examine the biologic sequelae of this modulation. Three grants aim to evaluate the possibility of EMF acting as a cocarcinogen in three tumor systems (skin, brain, and breast). One project focuses on neurologic function. These seven studies will produce an extremely limited amount of data. However, they are complemented by a multimillion-dollar effort to examine the effects of exposure of animals to power frequency magnetic fields. That study is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Toxicology Program. There also is a much smaller effort contained in the core EMF research program of the Departmenty of Energy (DOE). It must be recognized, however, that if a component of EMF exposure other than the putative 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field is biologically active (for example, a transient component) or if the response is manifest in terms of a biologic mechanism that was not measured, any adverse effects of exposure to EMF could go undetected by the EMF-RAPID studies. COMMUNICATIONS EFFORTS The Implementation Plan for Communication (1994) describes a series of nine project areas with anticipated funding and milestones designed to accomplish the communication goals of the EMF-RAPID Research Agenda and Communications Plan (1994). PROJECTS The largest communications project is the establishment and operation of a clearing house for EMF-related biomedical science and engineering information from virtually every available source. This effort of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) will identify and gather summaries of pubicly and privately funded research, generate data bases of

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] TABLE 4. IN VITRO PROJECTS FUNDED BY THE EMF-RAPID PROGRAM INVESTIGATOR AMOUNT ($ thousands) TOPIC (key words) Byus 441 cancer copromotion (skin) Graham 1,290 human melatonin (and immune) Lai 732 learning, cholinergic systems Mandevile 353 cancer copromotion (brain) McCormack 1,234 cancer copromotion (breast) Reiter 801 melatonin, pineal, stimulus type Yellon 57 melatonin, reproduction TOTAL 5,008 32% of total funding past and current research, and integrate new findings into those data bases. The clearing house also will issue newsletters to the community to disseminate information relevant to active researchers. Two other major projects seek to communicate directly to the general public. The first is the “EMF Infoline,” a telephone information service. The second is an information booklet published in 1995 (DOE, NIEHS, 1995) that will be revised periodically. The remaining six projects address the needs and desires of specific groups, such as special public audiences, public information resource people, state and local health officials, policy makers, field measurement and control technicians, and the news media.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] FUNDED EMF-RAPID COMMUNICATIONS EFFORTS The eight communications efforts that are completed or in progress are listed in Table 5. Projects 1, 2, and 6 are complete. These are the development of a question and answer booklet for the general public in English and Spanish, and the establishment of the EMF Infoline by the Environmental Protection Agency. These projects are specifically identified in the communications implementation plan and they appear to have been implemented in a timely fashion. The five remaining projects facilitate information dissemination to specific audiences; they appear to be consistent with the implementation plan. Two additional communications projects (Projects 9 and 10, Table 5), are in the process of being initiated. The source book for EMF resource people is a project identified in the implementation plan. The second project, development of educational material for students in grades 5-10, is not specifically identified in the implementation plan, but is generally consistent with the EMF-RAPID program’s objectives. Our committee had not received enough information at the time of this review to include a discussion of the continuing communication projects in this report.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] TABLE 5. EMF-RAPID PROGRAM COMMUNICATION PROJECTS IN PROGRESS FY-1995 PROJECT NUMBER PROJECT OBJECTIVE AGENCY OR CONTRACTOR FUNDING STATUS AS OF JUNE 1995 1 Q&A Booklet Provide information about EMF research to nontechnical audience. Oak Ridge National Laboratory $150,000 (including printing) Project completed 2/95. 2 Q&A/Spanish Translate booklet for Spanish speaking U.S. residents. Oak Ridge National Laboratory $26,000 Project completed. 3 Physician’s Guide,Patient’s Brochure Provide cancer patients and families information about EMF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, National Cancer Institute Approximately $10,000 Contract in place. 4 Workplace EMF Information Target useful information to industrial and office workers. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Approximately $40,000 Contract in place. 5 News media and information Provide Internet access to background and current information when news breaks on EMF (multiyear project). Oak Ridge National Laboratory $25,000/year, 4 years Contract in place. 6 EMF Infoline Quick response to public inquiries about EMF (multiyear project). Environmental Protection Agency $110,000/year, 4 years In place since 5/94.

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EMF Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992: [Interim Report, 1995] 7 Scholarship for EMF Research Review Attendance Allow two representatives from citizen groups concerned about EMF to attend annual research review and present poster. Oak Ridge National Laboratory $6,000 for 2 travel grants In progress. To be complete 11/95. 8 Information for Policy Makers Give policy makers the best EMF information available now and keep it current as new research findings emerge (multiyear project). Oak Ridge National Laboratory $25,000/year, 4 years Contract in place. 9 Sourcebook Provide guide to further information sources for EMF resource people, hard copy and n Internet. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Approximately $25,000 Procurement anticipated in 1995. 10 EMF Educational Material Multidisciplinary, interactive, computer-based teaching tool to introduce complexity of EMF issue to students in grades 5-10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Approximately $100,000 In procurement, Contract anticipated 10/95.