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Improving the Performance of America's Schools Improving the Performance of America's Schools Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995
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Improving the Performance of America's Schools NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The conference from which the papers in this publication were drawn was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members come from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the board responsible for the project were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a working mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is the president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This publication was supported by the Kellogg Endowment of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine and by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. This publication is available from: Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Room NAS 246 Washington, D.C. 20418 (202)334-2200 FAX: (202)334-1667 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Improving the Performance of America's Schools BOARD ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ECONOMIC POLICY A. Michael Spence Chairman Dean, Graduate School of Business Stanford University John A. Armstrong Amherst, Massachusetts James F. Gibbons Dean, School of Engineering Stanford University George N. Hatsopoulos President and CEO Thermo Electron Corporation Karen N. Horn Chairman and CEO Bank One Cleveland Dale Jorgenson Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics Harvard University Ralph Landau Consulting Professor Economics Stanford University James T. Lynn Advisor Lazard Freres Burton J. McMurtry General Partner Technology Venture Investors Ruben Mettler Chairman and CEO (retired) TRW, Inc. Mark B. Myers Senior Vice President Xerox Corporation Donald E. Peterson Chairman and CEO (retired) Ford Motor Company James M. Poterba Professor of Economics Massachusetts Institute of Technology George M. Whitesides Professor of Chemistry Harvard University Staff Stephen A. Merrill Executive Director Charles W. Wessner Program Director Lena L. Steele Administrative Assistant George Georgountzos Program Assistant
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