TABLE ES-1 GPS Networks Represented



Primary Use

Maritime Differential GPS Network

U.S. Coast Guard and Army Corp of Engineers

Coastal/harbor/inland waterway navigation

Continuously Operating Reference System (CORS)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

National Spatial Reference System

Wind Profiler/Water Vapor Network

NOAA-Forecast Systems Laboratory

Weather forecasting/climate monitoring

Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

Aircraft navigation/approach/landing

Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Monitoring crustal deformation and earthquake processes

Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) Network

USGS and San Francisco Bay area universities

Monitoring crustal deformation and earthquake processes

International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS)

Multiple U.S. and international agencies

Global spatial reference, geodetic, geophysical, and atmospheric research


Geographic Survey Institute of Japan

Japanese spatial reference, geodetic, geophysical research

TABLE ES-2 GPS Applications in the Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Sciences

Atmospheric Remote Sensing

Dynamic Positioning and Navigation

Static Positioning

Numerical weather prediction


Crustal deformation related to earthquake and volcanic processes

Hazardous weather detection and forecasting

Satellite altimetry



Satellite orbit determination


Ionospheric research, forecasting, and modeling

Physical oceanography



Atmospheric wind velocity and boundary-layer vertical velocity


Autonomous air and land vehicle piloting, navigation, and control


Three working groups were formed at the workshop (GPS networks, data sources, and static positioning applications; dynamic positioning/navigation applications; and GPS-based remote sensing of the atmosphere) to discuss issues raised in the presentations related to sources of error, user requirements, network and data standardization, and user/operator coordination and communications.4 Each group presented the results of its deliberations at the final plenary session. The presentations and the resulting discussions have been summarized by the Steering Committee into five overall themes.


Although the workshop agenda included separate sessions on GPS networks and data sources and static positioning applications, the two subjects were discussed by the same working group. Separate portions of the discussions of this group can be found in Chapter 2 and Chapter 5.

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