18. In most simple models of rational economic behavior, the cost of travel is the same in both instances, as is the benefit ($5); thus, the cost-benefit ratios are the same. That one item is marked down 33 percent and the other only 4 percent does not make one trip more worthwhile than the other when economic savings is the sole criterion of value.

  

19. For more detailed discussion of some behavioral issues in these domains, see Stern, Black, and Elworth (1981).



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