the lead by spreading the knowledge it develops, distributing reports through professional associations or through the mass media. More aggressive federal policies for organizational energy efficiency are conceivable. For example, municipalities have been required to designate city energy managers, a requirement consistent with our suggestions. Given a higher national priority on energy efficiency, the federal government might also offer incentives or even set requirements for energy conservation by private organizations.

All these suggestions involve using knowledge about organizations to lead them to be more attentive to energy efficiency. The rough clues that we have provided suggest that government and private sector initiatives can be strengthened by some moderate attention to the ways organizations select and pursue performance targets; to the effects of organizational slack; to the pervasiveness of rules and routines (particularly budgets and other accounting rules); to the extent to which organizations seek to avoid uncertainty; to the complications of attention scarcity; and to the ways in which ideas and practices are diffused.

THE ROLE OF INTERMEDIARIES IN ENERGY USE

Energy use does not depend only on the behavior of energy users. Actions that do not themselves involve the use of energy can have profound effects on energy use. This section discusses the roles of some of the important actors that function as intermediaries in energy use by making choices for the ultimate energy consumers. Intermediaries are organizations, individuals, and members of professional reference groups who stand somewhere between the orginators of energy-related goods, services, and information and the ultimate energy users. Intermediaries warrant discussion separately from energy users because the interests of the two groups are not always the same: conditions that may motivate an individual or organization to use less energy will not necessarily motivate an intermediary to act in ways that will decrease energy use.

Purchasers of Buildings and Energy-Using Equipment

Buildings and energy-using equipment are often purchased by persons or organizations that will never use them or will never pay for the energy they do use. About one-third of the housing units and more than one-half of the commercial space in the United States are rented. Furthermore, 40 percent of all major appliances are purchased by builders (Science Applications Inc., 1982), and the percentage is probably higher for furnaces and central air conditioning systems, which are almost always built in. So, at



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