Energy actions are sometimes advocated as means to keep money and jobs in the local community, essentially a strategic view at the local level. They are promoted as supportive of environmental values. And in addition, they are defended as good in themselves because they are believed to promote democratic control. For the diverse rationales of a sampling of local conservation programs, see Stern, Black, and Elworth (1981).


3. It has been argued that it is easier to form local coalitions on energy issues than on other social issues. This argument seems plausible because energy does not involve the same sorts of basic social division that marked the civil rights movement and the women’s movement in past decades; people who are disadvantaged by energy events do not have daily contact with some clearly definable social group that is not disadvantaged and that might be seen as responsible for their difficulties. Thus, dialogue and coalitions may be more possible across social groups. But the same factors that may make it easier to form coalitions detract from the motivation that may be necessary to mobilize for local action.


4. Information from V.P.Ludlam, Director, Westside Department Corporation, 1981.


5. Information from E.Hagens, Governors State University, Park Forest South, Ill., 1982.


6. Information from J.Pitts, Richmond, Indiana, City Energy Agency, 1982.


7. See note 1 above.


8. For a detailed discussion of these issues, see Stern et al. (1981: Chapter 2).

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