APPENDICES



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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report APPENDICES

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report APPENDIX A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members H. Thomas Kornegay (chair) is executive director of the Port of Houston Authority, which he joined in 1972. He previously served as planning and administrative engineer, chief engineer, director of engineering, managing director, and acting executive director. Mr. Kornegay is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses, and Chi Epsilon honorary fraternity for civil engineers. He received a B.S. degree in architectural engineering from the University of Texas and an M.S. degree in architectural engineering from Oklahoma State University. Anne D. Aylward (vice chair) is a senior consultant at the John A. Volpe Transportation Systems Center of the Department of Transportation. Previously, Ms. Aylward was executive director of the National Commission on Intermodal Transportation. She is a past maritime director of the Massachusetts Port Authority, where she was responsible for the development, marketing, and operation of the Port of Boston. She is on the Board of Directors of the North Atlantic Ports Association, chair of the North Atlantic Port Conference, vice chair of the Boston Harbor Association, a member of the Board of Governors for the Boston Shipping Association, and the past chair of the Board of Directors and the U.S. Delegation for the American Association of Port Authorities. Ms. Aylward received an A.B. degree from Radcliffe College and an M.A. degree in city planning from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is a member of the National Research Council Marine Board and the Transportation Research Board Committee on Intermodal Transportation R&D. Alan Bartel is the director of product development for Maersk Data, Inc., of Morristown, New Jersey, and is responsible for the development of new information technology and special projects for Maersk Line (a major international container ship company) and other maritime clients. He is director of distributed information technology, project manager for a global information strategy for Maersk Line, and director for global information management. Mr. Bartel's work supports business units covering terminal operations, imports, exports, and electronic data interchange. He has previously held positions with AP Moller Steamship Company and Equitable Life Assurance Company. He graduated from Nichols College in 1979 with a B.S. in business administration and a major in management information systems. M. Edward Gilbert is president of Gilbert and Associates, a consulting service. He has experience in crisis leadership, vessel traffic systems, coastal security and surveillance systems, and international telecommunications systems. Admiral Gilbert had a 35-year career in the U.S. Coast Guard that culminated in his final assignment as commander, 11th Coast Guard District. He was responsible for all operations and risk management in the Southwest and for carrying out the Coast Guard missions of law enforcement, maritime safety, port safety and security, environmental protection, military operations, and recreational boating safety. Previous assignments included resource director/comptroller where he oversaw an annual budget of $3.5 billion. Admiral Gilbert was also director of telecommunications. In that capacity he was chairman of an advisory group of government, industry, and labor leaders that established national standards for telecommunications. Admiral Gilbert holds a B.S. degree from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, an M.S. degree from the U.S. Navy Post Graduate School, and an M.S. degree in telecommunications from George Washington University. William O. Gray is president of Gray Maritime Company, a marine consulting firm. He works closely with Intertanko, which represents 70 percent of the world tanker fleet, to promote safe waterway transits in the United States. From 1987 to January 1995, Mr. Gray served with the Skaarup Group, initially operating the Skaarup fleet and then managing special tanker projects, working with organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences and Intertanko. Mr. Gray spent more than 22 years with Exxon Corporation,

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report primarily in the development of very large tankers. He managed Exxon's Arctic Tanker Project (a successful transit of the Northwest Passage by the T/V Manhattan). Mr. Gray also spent four years with Bethlehem Steel working on the preliminary design of merchant ships, especially tankers. He holds a B.S.E. degree in naval architecture, with honors, from the University of Michigan and an M.E. degree in mechanical engineering from Yale University. Mr. Gray previously served on the Marine Board Committee on Tank Vessel Design. Jerrol Larrieu is director of management information systems for the Port of New Orleans. He supervised installation of the country's most sophisticated automated port information system. He previously was a consultant to the port on its automation project, coordinating system design teams for major portions of this community cargo release system. Prior to that, he was manager of computer services for the Ingram Corporation for nearly 10 years, providing corporate consulting services. Mr. Larrieu has 28 years of experience in advanced information systems, including service with General Electric Company and the Chrysler Corporation. He holds a B.S. degree in mathematics from Xavier University of Louisiana. He is chairman of the American Association of Port Authorities Information Technology Committee and is a member of the Executive Board of the U.S. Customs Automation Advisory Committee. Robert G. Moore is president of Coastwatch, Incorporated, a maritime management and consulting firm. A prime focus for Coastwatch has been vessel traffic service (VTS) systems design. The firm has developed VTS design requirements for 23 U.S. ports and is assessing VTS-2000 designs for 10 ports. Previously, Capt. Moore was a career U.S. Coast Guard officer. He was chief of military readiness and was responsible for service-wide security, contingency and defense planning, and training. He also had broad international experience. He was the U.S. State Department advisor to the government of Somalia and served in London as deputy commander, U.S. Coast Guard Activities Europe. Capt. Moore has extensive experience with VTS. He visited major VTS systems in Europe to determine their suitability for ports in the United States. He was the U.S. observer to the international committee that developed the traffic separation schemes for Dover Straits and the North Sea. He also played a leading role in the U.S. Department of Transportation Port Needs Study. Capt. Moore holds a B.S. degree in engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Captain J.S. Niederhauser is president of Puget Sound Pilots and an active marine pilot. A member of Puget Sound Pilots since January 1990, he serves in various capacities, including pilot representative to the Port of Tacoma project for computer simulation of large container ship navigation in the Blair Waterway. He holds an unrestricted pilot license for Puget Sound waters from the U.S. Coast Guard and the state of Washington and is a member of Masters, Mates and Pilots and the American Pilots Association. Previously, as an employee of Foss Maritime Company from 1971 to 1990, Capt. Niederhauser gained sea experience on ocean, coastal, river, and harbor towing vessels, primarily within Puget Sound but ranging as far as ports in Alaska. As a tug captain, he qualified for pilotage in British Columbia waters, including Vancouver Harbor and Fraser River pilotage areas, and pilotage while towing loaded petroleum barges on the Columbia River and southeast Alaska inland waters. A charter member and past commodore of the Pacific Northwest Fleet of the Classic Yacht Association, Capt. Niederhauser has considerable experience in recreational boating on Puget Sound and British Columbia waters. Capt. Niederhauser was educated at Western Washington State University in Bellingham. F.D.R. Posthumus is director of fleet projects for Sea-Land Services, Incorporated. He has had a wealth of experience in virtually all aspects of vessel operations and fleet management. He managed foreign-flag charter vessels as well as U.S.-flag ships. Capt. Posthumus was also manager of Marine Operations Europe, Booking and Equipment Control Europe, and vessel operations in several areas of the world. Prior to joining Sea-Land in 1970, Capt. Posthumus sailed extensively with the Dutch Merchant Marine. He holds a master's license from the Hogere Zeevaartschool and a license as chief engineer of unlimited powered diesel ships. He is a graduate of the Dutch Army Transportation Corps Officers Academy. C.S. (Scott) Rockhold is chief engineer, maritime systems, at Hughes Aircraft Company, where he has worked since 1974. He is responsible for all technical aspects of projects for Hughes Maritime Systems. Major topic areas include surface search radar and vessel traffic services. Mr. Rockhold is responsible for research, defining operational requirements, developing systems, and quality control. Past assignments have included development of a command, control, communications, and intelligence system and a ship-based, multisensor correlation and tracking system for the U.S. Navy. In addition, Mr. Rockhold spent 10 years developing a variety of systems software related to antisubmarine warfare. Prior to that he was a scientific programmer in the Defense System Division of Sperry UNIVAC. Mr. Rockhold received a B.A. degree in mathematics from California State University, Northridge. Steven Valerius is executive vice president of Hollywood Marine, Incorporated, one of the largest tank barge companies in the United States. He is active in numerous marine industry organizations, serving on the Board of Directors of the American Waterways Operators, Texas Waterway Operators Association, and Louisiana Association of Waterway

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report Operators. He is an advisory director of LaPorte State Bank and serves on the Texas General Land Office Oil Spill Commission. Mr. Valerius is also chairman of the Executive Committee of the Galveston Bay Foundation. He is a graduate of the University of Texas at Austin and holds a J.D. degree from the South Texas College of Law in Houston. William A. Wallace is professor of decision sciences and engineering systems at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. As a researcher and a consultant in management science and information systems, Dr. Wallace has more than 20 years of experience in research on and the development of decision support systems for industry and government. Currently he is engaged in the application of artificial intelligence and advanced communications and location technology to problems in planning and control. He has held academic positions at Carnegie-Mellon University and the State University of New York at Albany. He served as chairman of the Rensselaer Statistical, Management, and Information Sciences Department from 1983 to 1987. Dr. Wallace also has been a research scientist and visiting professor at a number of institutions abroad, including the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the National Center for Industrial Science and Technology Management Development in China. He has authored or co-authored six books and more than 100 articles and papers. He holds a B.S. in chemical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in management science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. E. Cameron Williams is director, Southern Center for Logistics and Intermodal Transportation, Georgia Southern University. He is also a professor in the Joint Diplome Programme in Shipping and Port Management, Graduate College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware and Singapore Port Institute. Previously, Dr. Williams taught marine transportation, economics, and marketing at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. He also holds U.S. Coast Guard licenses as master of small steam and motor vessels, second mate of vessels of any weight, and radar observer. He is a captain in the U.S. Naval Reserve, specializing in naval control of shipping and convoy operations. He is a member of the Academic Advisory Committee and Intermodal Association of North America and a past member of the Chief of Naval Operations Advisory Board for Naval Control and Protection of Shipping. Dr. Williams holds a B.S. degree in marine transportation from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, an M.A. degree in business management (marketing) from Central Michigan University, and a Ph.D. in business administration (marketing) from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Russell Woodill is executive vice president and national positions chairman for the Council of American Master Mariners, which represents more than 1,500 shipmasters and pilots. He is also master of the Sea-Land Performance, which trades internationally and is among the world's largest container ships. Capt. Woodill has been active in the U.S. Merchant Marine for nearly 30 years, rising through the ranks of junior officers to his current position of licensed shipmaster, unlimited tonnage, any ocean. He has expertise in marine navigation, ship management, ship construction, cargo requirements, and vessel operations. Captain Woodill holds a B.S. degree from the Massachusetts Maritime Academy. Charles A. Zraket, NAE, is adjunct research scholar at the Center for Science and International Affairs (CSIA), Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and a trustee and retired president and chief executive officer of MITRE Corporation. At CSIA, Dr. Zraket is engaged in policy research in the fields of national and international security, global environmental change, information policy, and the impact of science and technology on U.S. public policy and economic development. At MITRE, where he began working in 1958, he served in various management positions concerned with systems research, engineering, and the acquisition of large electronic systems for defense intelligence, space, air traffic control and other civil systems, and energy and environmental systems. Dr. Zraket is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. He received a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Northeastern University, an M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an honorary doctorate in engineering from Northeastern University.

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report APPENDIX B Meeting Participants and Site Visits This appendix lists the guests who made presentations at committee meetings, the sites visited by the full committee and work groups, and the participants and questions addressed at the three outreach workshops. Besides documenting committee activities, these lists reflect the wide scope of the information and stakeholder perspectives solicited by the committee for this analysis. Guest Presentations at Committee Meetings First Committee Meeting: October 26–27, 1995, Washington, D.C. RADM Rudy Peschel, U.S. Coast Guard Michael Onder, U.S. Department of Transportation John Pisani, Maritime Administration W. Stanley Wilson, National Ocean Service Capt. Iain Slater (ret.), harbourmaster, Port of London Second Committee Meeting: January 3–5, 1996, Long Beach, California Lonnie Teng, Port of Los Angeles Authority S.R. Dillenbeck, Port of Long Beach Authority Harry Hutchins, Puget Sound Steamship Operators Association Third Committee Meeting: February 29–March 2, 1996, Tampa, Florida Capt. Ed Rollison, U.S. Coast Guard Fred Ganjon, National Ocean Service Robert Steiner, Tampa Port Authority Jay Floyd Glisson, Port of St. Petersburg James Brantner, Bay Transportation Company RADM James Card, U.S. Coast Guard Site Visits by the Committee and Work Groups 1 Nov. 18, Dec. 27, 1995: U.S. Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Center, Governor 's Island, New York (Jack Olthuis, commanding officer). Jan. 3, 1996: Vessel Traffic Information Service operated by the Marine Exchange of Los Angeles and Long Beach, San Pedro, California (Capt. Manny Aschemeyer, director, with presentation by Ed Page, Coast Guard captain of the port). Jan. 3, 1996: Jacobsen's Pilot Service and Traffic Information Center, Port of Long Beach, California (Capt. Dick Jacobsen, president). Jan. 3, 1996: Maersk Container Terminals, Port of Long Beach, California (Rex Grundle). Jan. 15, 1996: Port of London, Thames River Vessel Traffic Management Center, Gravesend, United Kingdom (RADM Bruce Richardson, chief harbourmaster, and Capt. Peter Bush, harbourmaster). Jan. 16, 1996: Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, Vessel Traffic Management Center (Ig. Pieter Struijs, executive director, shipping, Rotterdam Municipal Port Management). Jan. 17, 1996: VTS Centers at Cuxhaven and Brunsbuttel on Elbe River entrance to Port of Hamburg, Germany (Capt. Werner Hinsch, Transport Ministry of Germany). Feb. 8, 1996: Vessel Traffic Information Center, Cape Henlopen, Delaware, operated by the Pilots Association for the Delaware River and Bay (Capt. Michael Linton, president). Feb. 13, 1996: Hughes Aircraft Corp. pilot demonstration of vessel traffic system for the Port of New Orleans, Louisiana. Feb. 14, 1996: Tug vessel operating on the Mississippi River at Port of New Orleans, Hollywood Marine, Inc. Feb. 17, 1996: Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service Center, San Francisco, California (Dennis J. Sobeck, commanding officer). 1   Hosts are listed in parentheses.

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report OUTREACH WORKSHOPS February 8, 1996 • Lewes, Delaware List of Participants COMMITTEE * H. Thomas Kornegay, chair, Port of Houston Authority William A. Wallace, vice chair, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute * Anne D. Aylward, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center * M. Edward Gilbert, Gilbert and Associates William O. Gray, Gray Maritime Company * Jerrol Larrieu, Port of New Orleans * Robert G. Moore, Coastwatch, Incorporated * John (Jay) S. Niederhauser, Puget Sound Pilots F.D.R. Posthumus, Sea-Land Service, Incorporated * C. Scott Rockhold, Hughes Aircraft Company * Steven Valerius, Hollywood Marine, Incorporated * E. Cameron Williams, COBA-Georgia Southern University Russell Woodill, Council of American Master Mariners, Incorporated * Charles A. Zraket, Center for Science and International Affairs LIAISONS William A. Bergen, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Frederick Ganjon, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration John Pisani, Maritime Administration Capt. Edward Rollison, U.S. Coast Guard J. Michael Sollosi, U.S. Coast Guard PILOTS Capt. Jack Akerman, Sandy Hook Pilots Capt. Wayne E. Bailey, Delaware Bay Pilots Capt. Joseph F. Bradley, Delaware Bay Pilots Capt. Robert Deane, Sandy Hook Pilots Paul Kirchner, American Pilots Association Capt. Michael J. Linton, Delaware Bay Pilots Capt. Andrew McGovern, Sandy Hook Pilots Jeff Moller, Clark, Ladner et al. Glen Paine, Delaware Bay Pilots Capt. Bill Sherwood, Sandy Hook Pilots Capt. Jack Sparks, American Pilots Association INDUSTRY REPRESENTATIVES Scott Anderson, Maritime Exchange, Philadelphia Scott Burnett, Raytheon Cindi Cauffman, PCS Admiral Ted Leland, DRBA (Ferries) Stewart McCombs, Mobil Shipping Capt. Mike Nesbitt, Maritrans Eastern Division Capt. Chris Nette, Osprey-Acomarit Chuck Parker, Raytheon Jim Randall, Sun Transport Company Dennis Rochford, Maritime Exchange, Philadelphia Dave Steiner, SIS Corporation Robert Wenz, Keystone Shipping OTHER GUESTS Admiral Ecker, U.S. Coast Guard-5th District, Portsmouth Capt. George Naccara, U.S. Coast Guard Capt. Chuck Pillsbury, Masters Mates and Pilots CDR Peter Randall, U.S. Coast Guard CDR Mike Riley, U.S. Coast Guard Capt. John Veentjer, U.S. Coast Guard Ed Ziff, U.S. Coast Guard NRC STAFF Peter Johnson, Marine Board Nan Harlee, Marine Board consultant World Trade Center February 12–13, 1996 • New Orleans List of Participants COMMITTEE H. Thomas Kornegay, chair, Port of Houston Authority * William A. Wallace, vice chair, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute * Anne D. Aylward, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center M. Edward Gilbert, Gilbert and Associates William O. Gray, Gray Maritime Company Jerrol Larrieu, Port of New Orleans * Robert G. Moore, Coastwatch, Incorporated John (Jay) S. Niederhauser, Puget Sound Pilots F.D.R. Posthumus, Sea-Land Service, Incorporated C. Scott Rockhold, Hughes Aircraft Company Steven Valerius, Hollywood Marine, Incorporated * E. Cameron Williams, COBA-Georgia Southern University Russell Woodill, Council of American Master Mariners, Incorporated * Charles A. Zraket, Center for Science and International Affairs LIAISONS * Bernhard J. Abrahamsson, Marine Board * William A. Bergen, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers * Michael Dyson, PRC Frederick Ganjon, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) * Michael Onder, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation * John Pisani, Maritime Administration Capt. Edward Rollison, U.S. Coast Guard J. Michael Sollosi, U.S. Coast Guard * unable to attend workshop

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report GUESTS Capt. Richard Bertrand, Stolt Parcel Tankers, Incorporated Septime O. Bossiere, Jr., New Orelans Steamship Association Brett Bourgeois, New Orleans, SIS Association Capt. Bratcher, Houston Pilots Capt. James Calhoun, U.S. Coast Guard-8th District John Carnes, MARAD-New Orleans Region CDR Paula Carroll, U.S. Coast Guard Bob Carson, OMI Petrolink Joseph Cocchiara, Port of New Orleans Capt. Stephen Cropper, Tampa Bay Pilots Larry Daily, Canal Barge Company Capt. Mickey DeHart, Gulfcoast Transit Company George Duffy, Governor's Task Force on Maritime Industry Carmine Dulisse, SeaRiver Maritime, Incorporated Cherrie Felder, Greater New Orleans Barge Fleeting Association Martin W. Gould, New Orleans Baton Rouge Pilots Association Capt. Douglas Grubbs, Crescent River Ports Pilots Association Channing F. Hayden, New Orleans Steamship Association Capt. Robert Hussey, Hvide Marine, Incorporated Gene J. Hymel, New Orleans Board of Trade Patrick Johnson, Kirby Corporation Gordon Marsh, U.S. Coast Guard Stewart McCombs, Mobil Oil Jim Murphy, Maritime Administration Larry Litchfield, Raytheon Capt. Monty Ledet, U.S. Coast Guard Jack Levine, Associated Branch Pilots Jim Murphy, Maritime Administration-New Orleans Region Capt. Richard Schultheis, Houston Pilots Sharron Stewart, Galveston Bay Foundation Les Sutton, Consultant Gene Sweeney, Hvide Marine, Incorporated Captain Thomas Tray, Bona Shipping (U.S.) Incorporated Mike Vinci, Cenac Towing Company, Incorporated Capt. David Warwick, West Gulf Maritime Association Ken Wells, American Waterways Operators Matt Woodruff, Texas Waterways Operators NRC STAFF Peter Johnson, Marine Board Nan Harlee, Marine Board consultant Carla D. Moore, Marine Board Fort Mason Foundation February 15–16, 1996 • San Francisco, California List of Participants * H. Thomas Kornegay, chair, Port of Houston Authority * William A. Wallace, vice chair, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute * Anne D. Aylward, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center * M. Edward Gilbert, Gilbert and Associates William O. Gray, Gray Maritime Company Jerrol Larrieu, Port of New Orleans Robert G. Moore, Coastwatch, Incorporated John (Jay) S. Niederhauser, Puget Sound Pilots * F.D.R. Posthumus, Sea-Land Service, Incorporated C. Scott Rockhold, Hughes Aircraft Company Steven Valerius, Hollywood Marine, Incorporated E. Cameron Williams, COBA-Georgia Southern University Russell Woodill, Council of American Master Mariners, Incorporated Charles A. Zraket, Center for Science and International Affairs LIAISONS * Bernhard J. Abrahamsson, Marine Board * William A. Bergen, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers * Michael Dyson, PRC Frederick Ganjon, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) * Michael Onder, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation * John Pisani, Maritime Administration Capt. Edward Rollison, U.S. Coast Guard J. Michael Sollosi, U.S. Coast Guard GUESTS Pete Bontadelli, California Department of Fish and Game Capt. Carl Bowler, San Francisco Bar Pilots Margo Brown, National Boating Federation Capt. Ken Campbell, ARCO Marine Peter F. Campbell, Foss Maritime Company Alvin Cattalini, Maritime Consultant Robert A. Clark, II, American President Lines Rick Fay, Radar Digital Systems Marci Glazer, Center for Marine Conservation Capt. Jack Going, Bay and Delta Towing Fred Gorell, Pacific Merchant Shipping Association Capt. Kenneth M. Graham, Jacobsen Pilot Service, Incorporated Richard Griffith, Totem Ocean Trailer Express, Incorporated Terry Hunter, Marine Exchange of the San Francisco Bay Region Capt. Calvin C. Hunziker, Puget Sound Pilots Harry Hutchins, Puget Sound Steamship Operators Association Capt. Francis Johnston, MARAD-West Region Capt. Ron Johnston, Columbia River Bar Pilots Ruy Kern, Maritime Administration-West Region Mary Kieffer, Marine Exchange of San Francisco Bay Region Mark Knudsen, Washington Public Ports Association Bud Leland, State of California-Department of Fish and Game

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report BOX B-1 Questions Addressed at Workshops What do you believe is the appropriate role of the public (federal, state, and local) and private sectors in developing and operating VTS systems? Where and when are such systems “inherently governmental? ” Where and when should the private sector be principally responsible for providing them? How would you rate the feasibility of implementing these systems based on the following models: (a) federally operated, (b) operated by federal-private partnerships, and (c) federal oversight of private operations. For each model, what other issues (e.g., liability) do you think need to be addressed, and how should they be addressed if necessary to encourage implementation? How should these systems be funded? How would you rate funding alternatives such as (a) user fees, (b) general tax revenues, and (c) special tax or special use funds, such as the oil pollution fund or the harbor maintenance trust fund? What are the advantages and disadvantages to the following two approaches for these systems: (a) developing a national system that would be customized for each port, and (b) developing separate systems specifically for each port? What are the necessary elements of a successful maritime information system? What information enhances the safety of vessels operating in U.S. ports? In what ways do information needs change from port to port? What are the key factors involved in evaluating whether a specific port needs additional management information systems? Are there existing private-sector providers of information for maritime users? In what ways do they enhance safety? Joan Lundstrom, San Francisco Bay Commission Capt. Patrick Moloney, San Francisco Pilot Commission Jeff McCarthy, Marine Exchange of Los Angeles/ Long Beach Harbor, Incorporated Jerry McMahon, American Waterways Operators Marianne Molchan-Douthit, University of Washington Carlton Moore, California Department of Fish and Game Capt. J.B. Morris, U.S. Coast Guard-Seattle Roger Murphy, Red and White Fleet Stan Norman, Washington State Office of Marine Safety Capt. Ed Page, U.S. Coast Guard-Los Angeles/Long Beach Roger L. Peters, Maritime Consultant Capt. Benny Petterson, Swedish Maritime Administration Michael R. Powers, California Association of Port Authorities Suzanne Rogalin, California Coastal Commission John Rudgers, Office of Enviromental Services Capt. Reed D. Sigfridson, Columbia River Pilots CDR Dennis J. Sobeck, VTS-San Francisco Alan Steinbrugge, Marine Exchange of San Francisco Bay Region Brent Steinecker, Crowley Maritime Rick Walker, Coast Guard Research and Development Center Capt. Gregg Waugh, San Francisco Bar Pilots NRC STAFF Peter Johnson, Marine Board Nan Harlee, Marine Board consultant Carla D. Moore, Marine Board

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report APPENDIX C Navigation Information Systems This appendix describes navigation information systems mentioned in the report, excluding vessel traffic services (VTS), which were discussed at length. The listings and descriptions are not intended to be comprehensive. Rather, the information is intended to provide the lay reader with sufficient background to understand the purpose and mechanism of each system. Aids to navigation are devices for assisting a navigator in determining a vessel's position in a waterway and/or a safe course to steer. They also warn of dangers or obstructions. Traditional aids include buoys, lights, beacons, and sound signals. Satellite navigation systems and other electronic aids to navigation are becoming increasingly important. Buoys are used as reference points for vessels to prevent groundings and to help with alignment in channels. Buoys may be lighted, unlighted, or equipped to provide electronically enhanced radar signals. Conventional and low-light closed circuit television (CCTV) can provide visual surveillance of small areas of waterways where other surveillance systems are inadequate. CCTV is usually used to identify vessels or determine visibility and weather conditions in remote locations. Capabilities range from fixed-focus, daylight-only, stationary cameras to remote-controlled, 24-hour cameras that can pan, tilt, and zoom and are mounted in environmentally controlled enclosures. Although some automated processing of CCTV imagery is feasible, most data from CCTV displays must be processed by human operators. An electronic chart is a digitized version of a nautical chart, with graphic representations of water depths, shore-lines, topographical features, aids to navigation, and hazards. At present, electronic charts have no legal status and are used only to supplement paper charts, which must be carried on all ships. The development of accurate electronic charts for all U.S. waters awaits the updating of hydrographic surveys and digitizing of the resulting data. An electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) uses a high-resolution color display system integrated with radar, radionavigation systems, depth sounder, gyro compass and electronic chart data to aid pilots and other vessel operators. The principal application will be on board, but using ECDIS in shore-based control centers will ensure that identical traffic images are available to both vessels and VTS. Widespread adoption of ECDIS awaits the development of international standards and further digitizing of nautical charts. The global positioning system (GPS) is a three-dimensional, spaced-based military radio navigation system implemented and managed by the U.S. Department of Defense. It consists of 24 satellites orbiting in six circular planes at an altitude of 20,200 kilometers (10,900 nautical miles). GPS capabilities have been extended into the civil sector, with one service provided for the military and another for the civil users. The military service provides predictable positioning accuracy to within 22 meters (m) horizontally, 27.7 m vertically, and time transfer accuracy within 200 nanoseconds. The civil service provides predictable positioning accuracy of 100 m horizontally, 156 m vertically, and time transfer within 340 nanoseconds. Availability is advertised at 99.8 percent where there is defined coverage. The differential global positioning system (DGPS) provides accurate position fixes for civilian users by eliminating most effects of selective availability (a procedure in which GPS satellite signals are “dithered” randomly to preserve military integrity). Marine radio beacons are being modified to transmit GPS corrections to civilian users. With a properly modified receiver, users within range of the radio beacon station can apply corrections to improve accuracy to better than ±10 m. Special coding is used to overcome adverse effects of noise and lightning bursts on the transmitted corrections. The availability of the radio beacons used for DGPS is advertised at a minimum of 99.7 percent. Shipboard DGPS receivers usually provide real-time readouts of latitude and longitude. Small displays often are included, showing direction of movement, direction to waypoints, course to steer left or right of a designated azimuth, and speed over ground.

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report Nautical charts provide graphic representations of water depths, shorelines, topographical features, aids to navigation, and hazards. By international agreement, paper charts must be carded on all ships. Notices to Mariners, published by each Coast Guard district, contain chart corrections and other information of interest. Other publications for mariners include U.S. Coast Pilots. Radar can measure range and bearing accurately. Shipboard radar is usually used to survey an area, avoid collisions, and aid navigation. In VTS, shore-based radars provide all-weather surveillance and tracking of vessels. Radar provides independent surveillance of vessels not required to participate in VTS and monitors other waterway features, such as the position of buoys. Various levels of radar system performance can be selected, ranging from very large antenna arrays for highly accurate tracking to low-cost systems with shipboard type antennas for general surveillance. Radio beacons are nondirectional radio transmitting stations. A radio direction finder (RDF) is a short-range navigation aid using radio beacon bearings to fix navigation positions. The physical oceanographic real-time system (PORTS) is a real-time meteorological and hydrological measurement and information distribution system developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). PORTS provides networked instruments to measure current, wind velocity and wind direction. REALDATA, another NOAA system, reports current tides and provides users with computer software to compare actual and predicted tide levels. PORTS provides (through software) a consolidated graphic display of real-time outputs from all accessible environmental sensors in the area. Detailed PORTS information is generally transmitted by telephone (digital data and audio advisories), and users may dial up to hear weather, current and tidal conditions, or to have detailed PORTS information displayed.

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report APPENDIX D Vessel Traffic Information Services Two Examples This appendix provides background on the two most prominent privately supported vessel traffic information services (VTIS) to supplement the descriptions in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 of the report. The two systems cover the ports of Los Angeles/Long Beach and the Delaware Bay and River. LOS ANGELES/LONG BEACH The Los Angeles-Long Beach (LA/LB) harbor complex is one of the busiest ports in the nation in terms of numbers of vessel calls and amounts of cargo handled. The port complex lies along the northern shoreline of San Pedro Bay, with the harbor area protected from the open sea by a long breakwater. There are two relatively narrow openings in the breakwater to allow deep-draft ships access to the harbor and port area. The LA/LB port community has long been concerned about the safe movement of vessels in heavy congestion, a concern that may have originated prior to 1960, when the harbor was home port to a significant portion of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The VTIS is a cooperative effort by the nonprofit Marine Exchange of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Incorporated, the state of California, and the U.S. Coast Guard. VTIS is staffed jointly by Marine Exchange employees and Coast Guard personnel. The goal of the VTIS is to “improve vessel transit safety by providing vessels with advanced information of other reported marine traffic and any additional information which may affect traffic safety within the area covered by the VTIS ” (Marine Exchange of Los Angeles-Long Beach, 1994). The operation is supported by user fees assessed as part of the tariffs of the Ports of LA/LB, and the VTIS reimburses the Coast Guard for the cost of staff. The VTIS area of responsibility (AOR) lies seaward of the breakwater and extends approximately 20 miles offshore. Much of the area is in international waters, beyond the jurisdiction of the state of California and the United States, raising an interesting legal point about mandatory vessel participation in the VTIS. Management of traffic inside the breakwater is not in the purview of the VTIS and is handled by the pilot organizations serving the two ports. The Jacobsen Pilot Service (JPS), which serves Long Beach, is a private company. The Los Angeles Pilots are public employees of the Port of Los Angeles. The VTIS is a public-private partnership. The present organization and services evolved from a series of actions by various groups: efforts by the Marine Exchange to meet perceived local needs, steps taken by the JPS to apply technology to its commercial functions, and actions by both state and federal governments. History of the LA/LB VTIS Marine Exchange Activities The Marine Exchange has been handling maritime information affecting the LA/LB region since the 1920s. Over the years, the information services have evolved from rudimentary communication to the sophisticated dissemination of shipping information to subscribers. In 1983, building upon its information functions, the Marine Exchange began operating a voluntary traffic information service to provide information to vessels in the main approaches to LA/LB (Mizuki et al., 1989). The service was initiated in response to requests from the maritime community for improved real-time information on vessels arriving and leaving port; no government sanction or support was provided. Few resources were required to provide the basic service, and the costs were covered by the Marine Exchange information-generated revenue stream. With the passage of time, and as voluntary participation by arriving and departing vessels increased, procedures for both vessels and the information service became increasingly formalized. In 1988, the LA/LB Marine Exchange Port and Navigation Safety Advisory Group was formed, with the goal of creating a vessel traffic management system (VTMS) for the combined ports. The group apparently was formed to meet three concerns:

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report industry recognition of the significant risk of accidents in the area immediately offshore of the two breakwater entrances the perceived need for user input into the procedures followed by the Marine Exchange in the operation of the information service interest in preserving the preeminent role of the pilots organizations in the management of traffic inside the breakwater The advisory group was composed of representatives of the tug and barge industry, dry cargo and tank vessel operators, the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard, the two port authorities, and pilots from both ports. The group proposed the development of a VTMS serving both ports and embracing a geographic area extending approximately 20 miles seaward. Three control centers were envisioned that would exchange information with vessels within their areas of responsibility. The centers were to be located at the Marine Exchange and the two pilot stations, one each in Los Angeles and Long Beach. A number of requirements and restrictions were proposed that would apply to vessels operating in specific areas. Those proposals were subsequently included in the formal regulations for the precautionary area established by the Coast Guard in 1994. The planning process included the development of a comprehensive VTMS Users Manual, a survey of existing communications and surveillance capabilities at the Marine Exchange and the pilot stations, and the development of legislation to establish limitations on the liability derived from VTMS operations. Implementation of the plan was placed on hold after the Coast Guard announced plans to install and operate a federally funded vessel traffic service (VTS). At that point, the port industry appeared to lose interest in the private endeavor. JPS Activities Jacobsen Pilot Service has been a U.S. leader in applying modern surveillance technology to the pilotage and management of vessel movements. In 1949, JPS installed a radar to track vessels approaching and leaving Long Beach. The purpose was to provide positional and traffic information to JPS pilots on board ships and to arrange the orderly dispatch and recovery of pilots. The radar also provided early detection of arriving ships and facilitated pilot boat rendezvous, particularly when visibility was reduced. Over time, the radar and display were upgraded, and a second radar was added. The system was also put to additional use as an aid to JPS pilots bringing ships to anchor. In 1992, a state-of-the-art integrated display was added. Government Actions After major oil spills in 1988 and 1989, efforts to establish vessel traffic services in many ports were redirected and brought into sharper focus. The British Columbia/Washington Task Force on Oil Spills was formed in 1988, following a major oil spill off the Washington coast. The task force was intended to investigate ways and means of preventing oil spills, review oil spill response procedures, document and assess the mechanisms for handling claims arising from oil spills, and develop coordinated contingency plans for dealing with future spills (States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force, 1990). Ironically, the day after the initial meeting of the task force in 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling a large quantity of crude oil. Shortly thereafter, the task force membership was expanded to include representatives from California and Oregon, and the name was changed to the States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force. The group then became an important vehicle for preventing rather than simply responding to spills. Task force deliberations have influenced both state and federal law. The final report (States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force, 1990) contained two recommendations germane to developments in LA/LB: Recommendation 5. Upgrade vessel traffic service systems by replacing outdated equipment, eliminating gaps in coverage, increasing operator training and assignment length, and establishing mandatory participation in vessel traffic service systems in high-risk or congested areas. Recommendation 26. Each state/province shall recognize and utilize local citizen expertise and knowledge in spill prevention and response efforts. This may include a volunteer training and coordination plan to enhance preparedness. Task force members from California made additional recommendations applicable to the state, which were subsequently incorporated into California law. Of specific relevance for present purposes is recommendation CA-2: Create port/harbor safety committees for the harbors of San Diego, Los Angeles/Long Beach, Port Hueneme, and for the bays of San Francisco/San Pablo/Suisun and Humbolt. Each port/harbor safety plan prepared by the committees shall include the following minimum requirements: tug boat escorts, unless they are specifically found not to be beneficial; a review of anchorage designations and sounding checks, communications systems, small vessel congestion in shipping channels, and placement and emergencies; bridge management requirements; and mechanisms to insure the harbor safety plan is regularly enforced. In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) (P.L. 101-380). Among its many provisions is a requirement that the secretary of transportation conduct a study to “determine and prioritize the United States ports and channels that are in need of new, expanded, or improved vessel traffic services.” The resulting Port Needs Study ranked LA/LB fifth of 17 ports that should receive

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report VTS based upon cost-benefit analyses (Maio et al., 1991). As a result of the study, the Coast Guard has announced plans to provide a “state-of-the-art” VTS for LA/LB (Request for Proposals DTCG23-94-R-AVT001). Also in 1990, the state of California enacted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act, which, among other provisions, formally established the LA/LB Harbor Safety Committee (HSC) and provided the charter under which the HSC functions. Another key provision was the requirement that VTS systems be established in several California ports, including LA/LB. The California Government Code (Section 8670.21) now requires the administrator of the State Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) to ensure that an adequate VTS system is provided for in LA/LB, among other ports. The code also provides that a VTS be established through state action if the federal government did not have one in place by January 1, 1993. Status of LA/LB VTIS Historically, the pilot organizations have controlled vessel traffic inside the breakwater, while the Marine Exchange has provided information on vessel traffic in the approaches to the harbors. Vessel participation in the latter operation was voluntary. Once it became clear that federal funding for a VTS system covering the LA/LB harbor complex would not be available in the immediate future, the OSPR administrator was obligated by law to implement some measure of vessel traffic control. Under the authority of the California Government Code (Section 8670.21) and the Harbors and Navigation Code (Sections 445 through 449.5), the Marine Exchange was authorized to provide vessel traffic services for San Pedro Bay. The ongoing Marine Exchange information operation was upgraded significantly and transformed into a VTIS with mandatory vessel participation. This action was determined by the state to be the most cost-effective interim measure that would ensure a fundamental level of safety until the Coast Guard implemented a permanent VTS system. The establishment and operation of VTIS LA/LB has been and remains a cooperative effort of the two ports, the Marine Exchange, the Coast Guard, and the OSPR, all of which have worked to gain the acceptance and support of the maritime community. The ports have endorsed the VTIS and jointly granted the Marine Exchange $750,000 (including forgiven loans) to help cover start-up costs. The state provided a low interest $1 million line of credit. The Marine Exchange is responsible for providing facilities, procuring equipment, handling maintenance, organizing operations, and reporting to the OSPR administrator and the LA/LB HSC. The Coast Guard provides expertise and actively participates in operations, exercising captain of the port authority when needed. Under the state code (Section 8670.21[b]), the VTIS service operated by the Marine Exchange had to be planned “in consultation with” the Coast Guard. The state and the Coast Guard cooperated to obtain federal staffing, which was accomplished by assigning six unfunded Coast Guard billets to VTIS LA/LB. The cost of these billets is covered by the state, which is reimbursed by tariffs collected from participating vessels by the Marine Exchange, acting as agent for the ports. The vessel traffic center (VTC) sits atop Point Fermin in Fort MacArthur, with a sweeping view of the AOR, which extends 20 nautical miles seaward but does not include the area inside the breakwater forming Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors. The VTC operates two radar scanners from Point Fermin. The VTC is connected to another scanner located on Pier J (operated by JPS) in the Port of Long Beach. The Coast Guard and Marine Exchange jointly developed an operations manual, as well as informational material for mariners required to communicate with the VTIS. A rigorous training program has been developed, consisting of classroom, simulator, and on-the-job training, with continual testing. Using a mix of Coast Guard and Marine Exchange personnel, the VTIS is providing essential information to traffic leaving and entering the LA/LB port complex. The VTIS also facilitates Coast Guard missions involving search and rescue operations, maritime law enforcement, and marine environmental protection. In 1995, VTIS regulations, modeled upon the operating procedures developed by VTIS LA/LB, were codified in the California Code of Regulations (Title 14, Division 1). The Marine Exchange developed a database management system called ship harbor reporting system (SHARP), capable of generating reports of predicted arrivals, departures, berth shifts, and other information on commercial vessels in the two ports. The VTIS is considered to be an effective means of minimizing the risk of vessel casualties and marine oil spills. It remains an interim system (as defined by the state of California) and, under current plans, it will cease operation if and when it is replaced by the Coast Guard VTS. In the meantime, efforts are under way to expand the VTIS AOR. In 1995, two southern California offshore oil terminals were placed under the purview of the LA/LB HSC. One of them, the Huntington Beach terminal, already falls within the AOR. The other terminal is in Santa Monica Bay, which is outside the present AOR. The Marine Exchange commissioned a study in 1955 to determine the operational and design requirements for extending VTIS service to cover this terminal as well. The extension of the AOR into Santa Monica Bay is awaiting legislative action and the resolution of funding issues. Recognizing the uncertainty of federal funding for the LA/LB VTS, the OSPR is examining the possibility of expanding the VTIS to cover the entire Santa Barbara Channel. State law mandates VTS coverage of the Santa Barbara Channel, which is a sensitive environment and virtually unprotected. An initial step toward implementation of VTIS coverage of the channel may be connecting of the existing

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report radar scanner in El Segundo to the LA/LB VTC. It is believed that OSPR will pursue the expansion. The question of how to manage vessel traffic inside the LA/LB breakwater is unresolved under the present arrangement. Under state law, this issue must be addressed. The current system of two managers (the pilot organizations) inside the breakwater and a third manager outside the breakwater, with systematic transfer of vessel control among the managers, is reportedly working well. However, a breakdown in communications could lead to an accident. Although the state plans no near-term changes in the interim system, the commander of the 11th Coast Guard District has recommended extending the VTIS AOR to include all of the waters of both ports. DELAWARE BAY AND RIVER VTIS Deep-draft vessels transiting the Delaware Bay and River must negotiate about 90 miles of narrow channels before arriving at the port complexes. Although the region is served by fixed aids to navigation and buoys, navigation when visibility is reduced is difficult at best and can result in groundings at worst. In addition, during the winter season buoys can be carried out of position by the movement of ice, and other aids can be damaged or destroyed. Local pilots recognized that a precision navigation tool, independent of visibility or on-board equipment, would assist them in the performance of their duties and also enhance the safety of navigation. Status of Delaware VTIS The VTIS developed by the Pilots Association for the Bay and River Delaware operates from a tower on the tip of Cape Henlopen, overlooking the entrance to Delaware Bay. The radar provides remote surveillance of the lower bay and its offshore approaches, while the tower provides visual surveillance. The VTIS is equipped with two automatic radar plotting aids capable of tracking multiple targets; long-range very-high-frequency (VHF) radios capable of communicating with vessels along the 115 miles of pilotage waters on the bay and river; a computerized vessel logging system capable of storing vessel information; and tidal recording devices, which store and transmit information on tides. All VTIS watchstanders are licensed pilots. Apprentice pilots periodically serve in the tower as part of their VTIS training and to gain perspective on local vessel traffic. Cooperation with the VTIS is voluntary. However, most large commercial ships, and all vessels with state pilots on board, participate. A vessel inbound for Delaware Bay may establish VHF radio contact with the VTIS watch officer, who confirms the vessel's location and estimated time of arrival. The watch officer then informs the vessel of other traffic in the area and monitors the radar, advising the master if the vessel appears to be straying off course. When a pilot boards, the watch officer passes along information such as the location and movement of other vessels. Movement along the river is monitored by VHF radio until the destination is reached. The pilots association recently installed a computerized, shore-based vessel tracking system. This new unit allows the watch officer to track and monitor vessel movements. The unit may also interface with the computer logging system to provide information on vessels outside the radar surveillance area. The association has also purchased portable units that will enable pilots to fix vessel positions precisely through the differential global positioning system (DGPS). The portable units are described in the next section. The operational costs of the VTIS are borne by the pilots association and recovered from pilotage fees. Annual operating costs are estimated at $500,000. Additional funding for capital expenditures has been provided through a grant from the state of Pennsylvania. Precision Piloting Tool The “portable pilot” DGPS receiver units are carried on board all vessels that take on local pilots. Each unit weighs about 5.9 kilograms (13 pounds) and costs about $7,000. Major components of the system include a 12-channel global positioning system (GPS) receiver, radio-beacon interface hardware, and user interface computer software. Similar units are also being supplied to Maryland and New York pilot organizations. The unit is capable of receiving all visible GPS satellites and does not require a clear 360º reception cone as do less capable units. The receiving antenna is connected to the bridge wing railing with a simple spring connector. The receiver is connected to a port on a 486SX active color computer. All hardware is powered from the power supply. The system requires no adjustments for differences in power supply other than selection of the appropriate adapter plug for insertion in a power receptacle. The 12-channel receiver keeps track of the most reliable GPS signals, and the two-channel radio-beacon receiver keeps track of the best DGPS correction signal. One channel is tuned automatically to the “best” radio-beacon signal, while the second channel continuously scans preprogrammed radio-beacons in the area to ensure that the strongest DGPS correction signal is always the one used. Switching between radio-beacons is transparent to the user, as is switching between different GPS satellites. Accuracy is always within 3 meters, with significantly more accurate positioning (to within 1 meter or less) reported in actual use. The units do not display icons, waypoints, or the coastline. The display represents the channel center line and limits and the vessel 's position in the channel. No indication is given of heading or attitude relative to the channel. At the pilot's option, track-line data can be saved in the laptop unit for later replay. Pilots are asked to turn on the recording

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report feature if they have trouble obtaining an accurate position. These data then can be used to debug the software. The Maryland pilot system is more sophisticated in that it displays icons (which can be selected to represent different vessel sizes) and waypoints and is integrated with electronic chart software. Pilots using the positioning units are pleased with the system's performance (Bailey, 1995). As of late 1995, there were 25 to 30 units in use, and new ones were being delivered at the rate of 3 or 4 per month. The pilots report that DGPS reception has been reliable, with consistent accuracy to within 1 to 3 meters. The position of the antenna on the vessel seems to be a major factor in system reliability. Finding a mounting point with a full 360º clear horizon is a problem on many vessels, but when mounted on the bridge wing rail, the unit usually can “see” five or six satellites about 90 percent of the time. Recently, several changes were made to improve the system. Primary DGPS coverage of the area is provided by the Coast Guard radio-beacon at Cape Henlopen (at the entrance to Delaware Bay), but coverage was initially spotty in the upper reaches of the waterway. Now, coverage of the upper reaches is provided by the Sandy Hook radio-beacon at the entrance to New York Harbor. The Sandy Hook site also provides redundant coverage of Delaware Bay. (The switch between beacons normally occurs when a vessel is about 80 nautical miles north of the Cape Henlopen site.) In addition, the DGPS transmission rate from the Cape Henlopen radio-beacon was recently increased from 100 to 200 bits per second, and the message system was changed to the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services'“Type 9” format. As a result, pilots no longer lose the signal during thunderstorms or from lightning. REFERENCES Bailey, W. 1995 . GPS Crosses the Delaware . GPS World . August . 6(8) : 34 Maio, D. , R. Ricci , M. Rossetti , J. Schwenk , and T. Liu . 1991 . Port Needs Study . Report No. DOT-CG-N-01-91-1.2, three volumes, prepared by John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center . Washington, D.C. : U.S. Coast Guard . Marine Exchange of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Inc. 1994 . Los Angeles-Long Beach Vessel Traffic Information Service Users Manual , San Pedro, California . Mizuki, N. , H. Yamanouchi , and Y. Fujii . 1989 . Results of the Third Survey of Vessel Traffic Services in the World . Tokyo : Electronics Navigation Research Institute, Ministry of Transport . States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force . 1990 . Final Report of the States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force . Olympia : Washington Department of Ecology .

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report APPENDIX E Vessel Traffic Services in London and Rotterdam This appendix describes vessel traffic services (VTS) in two major European ports—London (United Kingdom) and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) —to supplement the information in Chapter 2 of the report. PORT OF LONDON AUTHORITY THAMES NAVIGATION SERVICE The Thames River VTS covers 97 nautical miles (nm) of estuary and river, of which 83 nm are covered by 12 radar sites providing surveillance data to two vessel traffic centers (VTCs), located at Gravesend and Woolwich. Each center is equipped with the latest daylight viewing capabilities, computerized radar displays, and automatic vessel tracking. The centers monitor vessel movements by radar and very high frequency (VHF) radio; there are three radio sectors, each with its own working frequency. Vessel participation in the VTS is mandatory. All passenger vessels and vessels over 20 meters in length are required to carry VHF radios. The Port of London Authority (PLA) was established as a public trust under the Port of London Act of 1908 to administer, preserve, and improve the port and for other purposes, including conserving the Thames. These powers have been extended in subsequent acts and orders, the last significant one being the Port of London Act 1968, which grants very wide powers to the PLA. The port authority regulates navigation, licenses dredging, conducts hydrographic surveys, registers lighters and tugs, maintains locks, acts as the pilot-age authority, regulates the movement of vessels carrying dangerous cargoes, and controls oil pollution. The harbormaster can give special directions to vessels in the Thames. Vessels over 50 meters in length must be piloted by an authorized PLA pilot. The VTCs employ an operational staff of 35, who provide continuous operations. VTS operators include pilots, who serve in rotation. Both stations have a master mariner in attendance at all times to advise and direct vessel masters as necessary, coordinate procedures in emergencies, enforce PLA rules for navigation, and ensure the efficient movement of vessels. Effective liaison and communication through direct telephone lines is maintained at all times between the two VTCs and the local police and fire brigades. If an emergency arises on the Thames, then the duty officer will alert police and fire services and coordinate effective response procedures until relieved of this duty by a senior officer. Funding for VTS is recovered from fees on cargo and ships using the port, as well as from other income from port operations. The next phase of VTS development will incorporate the exchange of data with neighboring ports, both within and outside the United Kingdom; an electronic chart display and information system; and a system for tracking hazardous materials. Also planned is a community network service for customs clearance using electronic data interchange (EDI). ROTTERDAM VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The Rotterdam vessel traffic management system (VTMS) was developed after many years of research and a comprehensive survey of port users, port authorities, and the business community. A joint venture of the Ministry of Transport and the City of Rotterdam, the VTMS took almost eight years to build and install. It began operations in 1987. The VTMS was developed to replace a 30-year-old chain of radar stations in response to increases in shipping and ship sizes, as well as growing volumes of increasingly dangerous goods shipped through the port. The system is designed to ensure safe and efficient traffic flow to and from the port. The VTMS coverage area stretches from 60 kilometers (km) offshore to 40 km inland and is divided into three regions, each with its own VTS to communicate with vessels. The three regions are subdivided into 12 sectors, each with its own VTS operator and separate VHF channel for ship communications. The total system includes 29 radars (all areas have double coverage), automated vessel tracking and multiple display systems, closed-circuit television (CCTV), a radio direction finder system using VHF signals,

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report BOX E-1 Questions Addressed at Foreign Port Visits ORGANIZATIONAL O-1. Describe the charter under which the VTS operates, in terms of its role in: General maritime safety. Pollution prevention and response. Movement of hazardous materials. Efficiency and economic interest of the port O-2. What organization operates the VTS? O-3. What is the relationship of that organization to: The Port Authority(ies)? Pilots'organization(s)? Local, regional and national governments? O-4. How are costs associated with the VTS operation funded? Recurring operating costs? Capital equipment and improvements? Training and qualification programs? If user fees are assessed, what is the rate structure? O-5. Describe the staffing structure of the VTS. Required entry-level qualifications? Watchstander qualifications? Training? Administrative structure? O-6. What organization(s) set standards and provide oversight? How is that oversight exercised? O-7. What limitations have been placed on liability exposure? How are those addressed? VTS-SPECIFIC V-1. What is the VTS'area of responsibility? V-2. What services are provided by the VTS? To waterway users? Commercial interests? Public safety agencies? Other government agencies/interests? V-3. What information about the VTS, its procedures, and requirements for participants is provided in advance of arrival? How is the information published? V-4. How is compliance with procedures, regulations and laws enforced? V-5. What information is provided by participants prior to arrival within the VTS area of responsibility? By what means of communication? V-6. What information is provided by participants during transit of the VTS area of responsibility? By what means of communication? V-7. What vessel-related data or information is disseminated to: Commercial interest? Public safety agencies? Other government agencies/interests? V-8. By what means is the information described in question V-7 disseminated? V-9. What are the key technical elements incorporated in the VTS for data collection, surveillance, data management, and data transmission?

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VESSEL NAVIGATION AND TRAFFIC SERVICES FOR SAFE AND EFFICIENT PORTS AND WATERWAYS: Interim Report a hydrographic and meteorological data system, integrated radio communication and voice logging, and comprehensive data handling. Functions of the VTMS include traffic control, traffic assistance, and oversight of dangerous goods. There are six basic rules for all ships: Responsibility for safe navigation rests with the mariner. Always listen carefully to the sector VHF channels to stay well informed about the traffic situation. The VTMS provides information, navigation assistance if necessary, and directions on behalf of the VTMS authority. Keep all communications brief and to the point. Always report any deviation from the norm with regard to navigation or ship's equipment. The official language is English in sectors 1, 2, and 3 (sea); Dutch or English may be used in the inland sectors. The VTMS is managed for the City Council by the Rotterdam Port Authority, Directorate of Shipping. Some 430 officials work for the VTMS, with 65 operators at work both day and night. The VTMS provides information, navigation assistance if necessary, and directions. All ships must notify the VTMS 24 hours in advance of entering the port, providing details of their navigation plans, dangerous cargoes, and ship's particulars. The port also provides for many other services, including hydrographic surveys, maintenance of waterways and facilities, operation of water depth, current and weather sensors, and links to organizations, such as customs, pilots, tugs, and shipping agencies. The cost of the VTMS is recovered through specific VTMS fees charged to each vessel; large vessels pay up to $2,000 per visit. The annual operating cost is estimated at $25 million. The total capital cost for the current system was roughly $180 million. An important new development planned for 1996 is the institution of an EDI-based notification system for ships carrying dangerous cargoes. The system will be connected to the VTMS as well as to other users. Another new development will be an automated system for water depth management integrated with the VTS.