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NUCLEAR SCIENCE SERIES NAS-NS-3119 Radiochemical Techniques Radiochemistry in Nuclear Power Reactors by Chien C. Lin Vallecitos Nuclear Center GE Nuclear Energy Pleasanton, California Prepared for the Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1996
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This monograph was prepared by an individual author for the Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Nos. DE-FG05-89ER14032 and DE-FG02-95ER14556.A000 and by the General Electric Company. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. AH rights reserved. Available from Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America
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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY ROYCE C. MURRAY, University of North Carolina, Co-Chair JOHN J. WISE, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Co-Chair HANS C. ANDERSEN, Stanford University DAVID C. BONNER, Premix, Inc. PHILIP H. BRODSKY, Monsanto Company ROBERT A. BROWN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARVIN H. CARUTHERS, University of Colorado GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University MOSTAFA EL-SAYED, Georgia Institute of Technology JOANNA S. FOWLER, Brookhaven National Laboratory JUDITH C. GIORDAN, Henkel Corporation LOUIS C. GLASGOW, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company JOSEPH G. GORDON II, IBM Almaden Research Center VICTORIA F. HAYNES, BF Goodrich GEORGE J. HIRASAKI, Rice University GARY E. McGRAW, Eastman Chemical Company WAYNE H. PITCHER, JR., Genencor Corporation W. HARMON RAY, University of Wisconsin GABOR A. SOMORJAI, University of California at Berkeley JOAN S. VALENTINE, University of California at Los Angeles DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director MARIA P. JONES, Administrative Secretary SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate SCOTT T. WEIDMAN, Senior Program Officer TAMAE M. WONG, Senior Program Officer ill
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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, The Institute for Advanced Study PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, W.R. Grace and Company JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Rutgers University KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory KEN KENNEDY, Rice University THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota LEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLIGHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director IV